Combo with Abdominal Wall/ Inguinal Region: Anatomy test 1 and 1 other

What are the nine divisions of the abdomen?*****

Top line:
Right Hypochondriac Holds: liver
Epigastric
Left Hypochondriac Holds: Spleen
Middle line:
Right Lateral (lumbar),
Umbilical,
Left Lateral (lumbar) - Holds: most of the descending colon.
Bottom line: Right inguinal,
Hypogastric (pubic) Holds: uri

What is the Umbilicus?****

belly button; dermatome T10 (ventral primary ramus)

What is the Lineae Transversae

The rectus abdominis muscles are long and flat. The muscle is crossed by three tendinous intersections called the linae transversae. This is a surface landmark the structure underneath are the 1-4 tendinous intersections that interrupt the rectus abdomini

What is the Linea Alba?*

The linea alba is a fibrous structure that runs down the midline of the abdomen in humans and other vertebrates. The name means white line and the linea alba is indeed white, being composed mostly of collagen connective tissue.
NOTE: that this is where yo

What are the six layers of the abdominal wall?*

1) skin 2) superficial fascia 3) Muscles and muscular fascia 4) Transversalis fascia 5) Extraperitoneal fat (subserous fascia) 6) Peritoneum (parietal layer)

What are the two layers of the superficial fascia?

1) camper''s fascia 2) scarpa's fascia

What is transversalis fascia?

The transversalis fascia (or transverse fascia) is a thin aponeurotic membrane which lies between the inner surface of the Transversus abdominis and the extraperitoneal fascia.

What are the muscular layers of the abdominal wall? (from external to internal)**

THREE CONCENTRIC LAYERS: 1) External oblique 2) internal oblique 3) transversus abdominis
ALSO:
4) rectus abdominis / pyramidalis in the middle

What is the rectus sheath?***

The rectus abdominis is enclosed in a sheath consisting of anterior and posterior laminae.Notice that above the arcuate line the posterior lamina of the rectus sheath is formed from
the transversalis fascia (dashed line), the aponeurosis of the transversu

What does the internal oblique become inferiorly?

inferiorly contributes to the cremaster muscle layer of the spermatic cord.

Does the transfersus abdominis contribute a layer to the spermatic cord inferiorly?

NO.

What is the arcuate line?

A crescent shaped arcuate line is formed when an abrupt transition is made from a posterior lamina consisting of aponeurotic tissue to simple transversalis fascia.

What makes up the anterior and posterior lamina of the rectus sheath above the arcuate line?*****

Anterior lamina: Aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle and part of the aponeurosis of the internal oblique muscle.
Posterior lamina: the rest of the aponeurosis of the internal oblique muscle, the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis muscle, the

What makes up the anterior and posterior lamina of the rectus sheath below the arcuate line?****

Anterior lamina: The aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle, aponeurosis of the internal oblique muscle, aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis muscle.
Posterior lamina: Only transversalis fascia.

What major structures lie between the second and third muscle layers? ***

Between the internal oblique and the transversus abdominis layer: VAN
Veins
Arteries
Nerves

What arteries are the blood supply to the anterior abdominal wall?*

1) Segmentally arranged (lower posterior intercostals, subcostal, lumbar arteries)
2) longitudinal channel (superior epigastric, inferior epigastric)

What is important about the superior and inferior epigastric arteries?

They anastomose: therefore if blood were to flow retrograde in the inferior epigastric then subclavian artery (subclavian --> internal thoracic --> superior epigastric) would connect to the external iliac artery (which gives off inferior epigastric).

What nerves innervate the anterior abdominal wall?

1) subcostal nerves, 2) Iliohypogastric nerve 3) Ilioinguinal nerve

Where do the intercostal nerves that innervate the anterior abdominal wall come from?

T7-T12

Where do the iliohypogastric and the ilioinguinal nerves come from?***

L1
Note that iliohypogastric is more medial.
Note that ilioinguinal passes through the superficial inguinal ring.

What are the dermatomes of the epigastric region?

T6, T7, T8

What is the dermatome of the inguinal region?

L1

What is the inguinal ligament?*

This is the inferior edge of the external oblique aponeurosis extending from the anterior iliac spine to the pubic tubercle

What are the parts of the superficial inguinal ring?

1) medial crus 2) lateral crus 3) intercrural fibers

What are the intercrural fibers?

The intercrural fibers (intercolumnar fibers) are a series of curved tendinous fibers, which arch across the lower part of the aponeurosis of the Obliquus externus, describing curves with the convexities downward.
They have received their name from stretc

What is the inguinal canal?

The inguinal canal is a passage in the anterior (toward the front of the body) abdominal wall which in men conveys the spermatic cord and in women the round ligament. The inguinal canal is larger and more prominent in men.

What are the layers covering the spermatic cord?*****

1) external spermatic fascia (from external oblique layer) 2) cremaster muscle (from internal oblique layer) 3) Internal spermatic fascia (from transversalis fascia)
Note that transversus abdominis muscle does not contribute a layer.

What are the components of the spermatic cord?*

1) ductus deferens 2) testicular artery 3) pampiniform plexus of veins 4) genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve 5) smaller arteries, autonomic nerve plexus, and lymphatics

What are two types of inguinal hernias?

Indirect and Direct

What is an indirect inguinal hernia?*******

The hernia passes through the deep inguinal ring LATERAL to the inferior epigastric vessels. The hernia lies within the spermatic cord (covered by all three layers of the cord.
BUZZWORDS:
PATENT PROCESSUS VAGINALIS (IN KIDS): mesothelial lined space.
LATE

What is a direct inguinal hernia? ******

In a direct inguinal hernia, the hernia passes MEDIAL to the inferior epigastric vessels, "directly" through the posterior wall of the inguinal canal. This region of the posterior wall is called the inguinal (HESSELBACH'S TRIANGLE)
BUZZWORDS:
MEDIAL INGUI

The deep inguinal ring is an apparent defect in which layer?*

Transversalis fascia.

What is a processus vaginalis?******

Inguinal HERNIAS in the pediatric age group are almost always INDIRECT, the result of PERSISTENT PATENTCY OF THE PROCESSUS VAGINALIS. The processus vaginalis is an out-pouching of the peritoneal cavity that follows the inguinal canal down into the scrotum

What passes through the superficial and deep inguinal rings?******

ilioinguinal nerve = SUPERFICIAL RING ONLY - does not traverse entire canal.
Components of the spermatic cord (round ligament in women):
1) ductus deferens 2) testicular artery 3) pampiniform plexus of veins 4) genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve 5)

What is the conjoint tendon? Labeled as inguinal aponeurotic falx. *

The conjoint tendon (previously known as the inguinal aponeurotic falx) is a structure formed from the lower part transversus abdominis muscle as it inserts into the crest of the pubis and pectineal line immediately behind the superficial inguinal ring. I

Functions of abdominal wall during breathing

it relaxes during inspiration to accommodate expansion of the thoracic cavity and the inferior
displacement of abdominal viscera during contraction of the diaphragm (Fig. 4.3);
during expiration, it contracts to assist in elevating the domes of the diaphr

what are the skeletal elements of the anterior abdominal wall

- the five lumbar vertebrae and their intervening intervertebral discs;
- the superior expanded parts of the pelvic bones; and
- bony components of the inferior thoracic wall including the costal margin, rib XII, the end of rib
- XI, and the xiphoid proce

what is the cord of tissue that passes through the anterior abdominal wall and connects the gonads to the primordia of the scrotum and labia during development?

the gubernaculum

Inguinal canal

the passage through the anterior abdominal wall created by the processus
vaginalis

spermatic cord

the tubular extension of the layers of the abdominal wall into the
scrotum that contains all structures passing between the testis and the abdomen.

round ligament of the uterus

derivative of the gubernaculum

The superficial fatty layer of superficial fascia of the anterior abdominal wall

Camper's fascia

The deeper membranous layer of superficial fascia of the anterior abdominal wall

Scarpa's fascia

inguinal ligament

formed by the lower border of the external oblique aponeurosis on each side; This thickened reinforced free edge of the external oblique aponeurosis passes between
the anterior superior iliac spine laterally and the pubic tubercle medially (Fig. 4.28). It

transversalis fascia

a continuous layer of deep fascia that lines the abdominal cavity and
continues into the pelvic cavity. It crosses the midline anteriorly, associating with the transversalis
fascia of the opposite side, and is continuous with the fascia on the inferior su

what artery(s) supplies the superior part of the anterior abdominal wall

superficially: musculophrenic artery (branch of internal thoracic artery)
Deeply: superior epigastric artery, a terminal branch of
the internal thoracic artery;

what artery(s) supplies the inferior part of the anterior abdominal wall

superficially: supplied by the medially placed superficial epigastric artery and
the laterally placed superficial circumflex iliac artery, both branches of the femoral artery
deeply: the medially placed inferior epigastric artery and
the laterally placed

what arteries supply the lateral part of the anterior abdominal wall

branches of the tenth and eleventh intercostal
arteries and the subcostal artery

contents of the inguinal canal

the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve, the spermatic cord in men and the
round ligament of the uterus in women. Additionally, in both sexes, the ilio-inguinal nerve passes
through part of the canal, exiting through the superficial inguinal ring wi

inguinal hernia

An inguinal hernia is the protrusion or passage of a peritoneal sac, with or without abdominal
contents, through a weakened part of the abdominal wall in the groin. It occurs because the
peritoneal sac enters the inguinal canal either:
indirectly, through