AP Latin Characters and Culture Terms Vergil & Caesar

Acestes

King of Sicily, helps the Trojans, "good

Achates

Accompanies Aeneas into Carthage, Aeneas's BFF, "faithful

Achilles

The main Greek warrior, kills Hector and drags him around the walls

Aecides

Patronymic, another name for Achilles or Neoptolemus

Aeolus

King of the winds

Agamemnon

King of Mycenae, leader of the Greek force

Ajax

Desecrated Minerva's temple during the siege, Minerva destroyed the whole fleet because of him

Anchises

Father of Aeneas, didn't want to leave Troy (but did), died in Sicily

Andromache

Hector's wife, taken as a concubine by Neoptolomus

Ascanius

Son of Aeneas (Iulus)

Atridae

Patronymic, Agamemnon and Menelaus

Boreas

North wind

Cassandra

Seer, she was cursed so that no one would ever believe her, speaks out against the horse

Charybdis

Whirlpool

Creusa

Got lost leaving Troy and died, third person to tell Aeneas he needs to leave

Deiopea

Beautiful nymph Juno uses to tempt Aeolus

Ganymede

Replaced Hebe as cup-bearer, annoys Juno

Hector

First person to Tell Aeneas to leave (in a dream), son of Priam, "light of the Trojans," killed by Achilles

Hecuba

Wife of Priam, has to watch him get killed

Helen

Started the Trojan War

Helenus

One of Priam's son, taken as a slave by Neoptolemus, marries Andromache, seer- tells Aeneas what he needs to do on his journey

Iulus

Ascanius, founding of Julio-Claudian Dynasty

Janus

God of beginnings and endings, doors of temple are open during war

Menelaus

Agamemnon's brother, king of Sparta, original husband of Helen

Neoptolomus

Pyrrhus ("fire"), "new war," son of Achilles, Helen said they couldn't win without having him there to fight

Numitor

King of Alba Longa

Parcae

The Fates

Paris

Steals Helen, starts the war

Pelides

Patronymic, Achilles and Neoptolomus

Priam

King of Troy, killed by Pyrrhus

Quirinus

Deified Romulus

Quirites

Another name for the Romans

Remus

Brother of Romulus

Rhea Silva

Mother of Romulus and Remus

Sinon

Greek that tricks the Trojans into thinking the horse is a gift from Minerva

Zephyr

A wind

Names for Trojans

Dardanians, Phrygians, Teucrians

Names for Greeks

Achaeans, Argives, Danaans, Myrmidons

Orgetorix

Helvetian noble who persuades the Helvetians to migrate; puts together plan and persuades other tribes - Sequani and Aedui; put on trial for trying to take power and commits suicide

Dumnorix

Aeduan noble married to Orgetorix's daughter; works against Caesar to keep him from getting grain supplies promised by Aedui

Diviciacus

Dumnorix's brother; pro-Roman but protective of his brother

Liscus

Another Aeduan; a "vergobret" (chief magistrate) sent with Diviciacus to tell Caesar about influential noble (Dumnorix) who is blocking the grain supplies

Ambiorix

Leader of the Eburones who tricks Romans into an ambush; Caesar never able to find him

Catuvolcus

Another leader of the Eburones

Tasgetius

A prince of the Carnutes who was friendly to Romans; his assassination caused Caesar to send Plancus to that area with one legion; this spread his troops even more and perhaps led to the uprising

Indutiomarus

An anti-Roman leader of the Treveri whom Caesar had compelled to give him a large number of hostages to insure good behavior while he (Caesar) went to Britain for the second time in 54 BCE; involved in revolt with Ambiorix

Gnaeus Pompeius

Gallic client of Pompeius Magnus who served as an interpreter for Sabinus; during the ambush Sabinus sends him to ask Ambiorix for a parley

Commius

...

Allobroges

Tribe that lived in "The Province;" the Helvetians wanted to migrate through their lands

Aedui

A Gallic tribe that had been Roman allies - were called brothers and asked for help against the German Ariovistus. Some leaders (Dumnorix) were not so keen on the Romans. By helping the Aedui against Ariovistus, Caesar was able to continue war in Gaul.

Helvetii

A Celtic tribe that wanted to migrate from southern Germany to western Gaul. Caesar did not allow this and eventually defeated them near Bibracte

Sequani

Celtic tribe in Gaul that brought Ariovistus in from Germany to help them conquer the Aedui. Ariovistus did so and then occupied Sequani lands and kept taking more land and booty. The Sequani and Aedui appealed to Caesar for help

Santoni

Celtic tribe in western Gaul where the Helvetians planned to settle. Caesar used the excuse that they would be too near the province and made war on the Helvetians.

Tigurini

A branch of the Helvetii whom Caesar wiped out when they were trying to cross the Saone River. This paid back the Tigurini for their defeat of a Roman army in 107 BCE when they killed Lucius Cassius and Lucius Piso and sent the Roman army under the yoke

Eburones

Revolt against Romans under Ambiorix

Nervii

Tribe Cicero stationed with; attack his camp in latter half of Book V

Treveri

Indutiomarus is a chief

Carnutes

Assassinate their pro-Roman leader, Tasgetius

Aduatuci

German tribe Ambiorix claims is coming to join him

Towns

Genava, Bibracte, Besancon

Samarobriva

Town where Caesar held a conference for the Gallic leaders in 54 BCE; capital city of the Ambiani in northern Gaul

Jura Mountain

A geographical feature blocking the progress of the Gauls?

Rhodanus River

Rhone River

Lake Lemannus

...

Soane River

chief tributary of the Rhone; Caesar beat Tigurini when they tried to cross it

Padus River

Po River; boundary between Gaul and Italy

Mosa River

Mosa River (now Meuse)

Rhenus River

Rhine River; most of the Eburones lived between the Mosa and Rhine

Titus Labienus

Caesar's 2nd in command and most able legatus; later fought against Caesar in the civil war

Publius Crassus

one of Caesar's quaestors, son of Caesar's partner in First Triumvirate

Publius Considius

Veteran soldier serving under Caesar; gives misinformation about who is occupying a hill during battle with the Helvetians

Lucius Cassius Longinus

Killed by the Tigurini in 107 BCE

Lucius Piso

Grandfather of Caesar's father-in-law; killed by Tigurini in 107 BCE

Gaius Valerius Procillus

Caesar sends as emissary to parley with Ariovistus who puts him in chains; rescued after battle. Spoke Gallic language. His father was a freedman.

Marcus Metius

Also sent as emissary to Ariovistus and put into chains; rescued after battle; bound to Ariovistus by ties of hospitality

Gaius Fabius

Legatus; quartered with Morini during the winter of 54 BCE

Quintus Cicero

Younger brother of Cicero the orator; legatus quartered among the Nervii during the winter of 54 BCE

Marcus Crassus

Son of Crassus; quaestor under Caesar but put in charge of troops because he had military skills; quartered among the Belgae (just the Bellovaci, Atrebates, and Ambiani); later besieged by Nervii and barely saved by Caesar

Lucius Munatius Plancus

Legatus; quartered among the Belgae (just the Bellovaci, Atrebates, and Ambiani); later sent to the Carnutes with one legion after the assassination of Tasgetius

Gaius Trebonius

Legatus; quartered among the Belgae (just the Bellovaci, Atrebates, and Ambiani)

Quintus Titurius Sabinus

Legatus; quartered among the Eburones; lost a legion and 5 cohorts (and his life) through poor decision to move the other camp (based on Ambiorix's advice)

Lucius Aurunculeius Cotta

Legatus; quartered among the Eburones; did not want to follow Ambiorix's advice but gave in to his senior legatus, Sabinus; wounded in the face during the ambush and then died fighting bravely.