North America

cultural pluralism, rain shadow effect, fosop
sil fuel, urban system, gentrification, Sunbelt, migration, melting pot, First Nations, secession, megalopolis, technopole, and Pacific Rim.

Middle America

NAFTA, maquiladors, land bridge(isthmuth), archipelago, altitudinal zonation( tierra caliente, tierra templada, tierra fria, tierra helada, tierra nevada), tropical deforestation, cultural hearth, mestizo, plantation, hacienda, and connectivity.

South America

altiplano, Liberation Theology, commercial agriculture, subsistence agriculture, and barrio(favela).

North Africa and Southwest Asia

cultural diffusion, climate change, spatial diffusion, expansion diffusion, relocation diffusion, contagious diffusion, hierarchial diffusion, Islamization, choke point, jihad, Wahhabism, and domino effect.

Subsaharan Africa

rift valley, continental drift, land tenure, colonialism, Green Revolution, medical geography, endemic, epidemic, pandemic, and multilingualism.

South Asia

Monsoon, social stratification ( caste system), partition, population density, physiological density, fertility rate, and population pyramid.

East Asia

Tsunami, dynasty, Confucianism, extraterritoriality, isolationism, Westernization, Asian Tigers, high value-added goods, buffer state, conurbation.

Southeast Asia

shatter belt,bio diversity, emerging market, ASEAN, AFTA, antecedent boundary,subsequent boundary, superimposed boundary, relict boundary, compact state, protruded state, elongated state,fragmented state, and perforated state.

Austral Realm

subtropical convert gents, west wind drift, biogeography, Wallace's line, Aboriginal population, unitary state, Outback, and environmental degradation.


physiohraphy, city state, local functional specialization, Industrial Revolution, nation, complementarity, metropolitan, central business district, centrifugal forces, centripetal forces, supranationalism, and devolution.


heartland, permafrost, Tundra, Taiga, steppe, ferderation, command economy.