geography 1700 - Europe slide

Environmental Regions

Glaciation effects
Plate boundary effects
North European Plain (lowland)

Climate and Effects

continental to extreme maritime effects (North Atlantic drift/Gulf Stream)
mediterranean climates

Environmental Issues

global warming problems
acid rain
water pollution

where are there more significant environmental problems?

Eastern Europe (the former communist countries)

Population Regions

distribution of population corresponds closely to topography
there is a slow natural growth or decline
migration issues

Europe has an old population. there are also incentives for ...

incentives to child-bearing


makes sense given the demography
immigration from both inside and outside Europe is a major political issue and the source of cultural conflicts

where is immigration a major political issue (specifically in Europe)

italy, especially in the northern part of the country

immigration flow patterns

there is a lot of immigration within Europe
also immigration outside Europe is often linked to imperial past

3 empires of Europe that we learned about

British empire, dutch empire and French empire

cultural clashes

occurring especially between muslim immigrants and their European born children and christian and secular europeans
france is especially hit by this


very high among muslim youth (most are first or 2nd generation residents)

who is Europe frequently targeted by?

jihadists and other terrorists, it also sends jihadists to southwest Asia

non-europeans seeking better lives

Europe is still a common destination for non europeans despite cultural differences, however some countries are more welcoming than others to asylum seekers

cultural regions

as in population there is a north south geography and an east west geography

european cultures influence is from...

it has been greatly influenced by southwest asian and African societies, especially around the mediterranean, - influences on religion, writing, legal systems, math etc

secularism is growing

there are language variations within countries

east - west attitudes toward same sex marriage

east believes in no legal recognition (like Italy Greece Poland), middle believes in other legal union (Germany and surrounding areas), and west believes in marriage (Spain Portugal France Ireland UK)

working women

wide variation in the work environment for them

ethnic divisions

ethnic divisions affect many countries in Europe

The UK

contains significant cultural diversity within its constituent / nations - Scotland almost voted to secede from the UK in 2014


basques are an important minority in Spain - other groups are also seeking political autonomy


Roma are about 10% of the populations of Romania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Slovakia, Roma are a stateless nation


broken into different political territories based largely on ethnicity - but there is considerable overlap of ethnic groups across political boundaries

indigenous minorities

live in far northern areas

economic split of Italy

significant north south differences

germanys integration issue

reunification of east and west has raised cultural differences no associated with ethnic diversity

political regions

the face of modern Europe is often traced to the napoleonic era

the old empire

included a large number of nationalities - many are now independent in approximate nation states

which places have had their borders and independence altered by the course of European geopolitics?

baltic states, poland, Belarus, Moldova

relatively recent experience with absolute monarchy and totalitarian forms of government

facist dictatorships in Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal, communist dictatorships in poland, Hungary, Romania, east Germany and others (Warsaw Pact)


established after WWII - anti soviet
it includes the US, Canada, and turkey as non European members (Montenegro is now a member)
the US is the backbone of NATO (also provides large budget) with respect to personnel. turkey and Greece are significant contr

Economic and social regions

most of Europe has 1st rate infrastructure

european incomes are higher in the

north and west

economic transition

has been rocky in the east

Industrial Revolution

home of the IR. manufacturing traditionally strongest in the northern countries
southern European countries traditionally agricultural
geographical split between manufacturing and agriculture has declined considerably since the establishment and growth of

EU started as a free trade area for the coal and steel industries

of the Benelux countries (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, germany and France)
now encompasses 29 countries - trade in goods, finance, and migration can proceed without restriction


many EU countries have adopted the euro

who is a new member of the EU?



creating serious difficulties in eurozone - could be that euro will not survive in its current context

votes for EUs future

have been mixed, but the number of euroskeptics (people who don't like a lot of power in the EU) is large

The UK and EU

the uk has voted to leave the EU and the process has begun

language in the EU if the UK leaves

will probably be English

the Brexit vote had a geography

Scotland may again have a UK secession vote

asylum laws

protect refugees from global political and ethnic persecution, stem from post WWII humanitarian efforts

buffer zone

Soviets desired an area consisting of extensive bloc of satellite countries that could cushion SU heartland from attack from West. (Mongolia between china and Russia)

cold war

post WWII ideological battle between communism and democracy

continental climate

farther inland europe with hotter summers and colder winters

Cyrillic alphabet

countries with close ties to the orthodox church use the greek derived alphabet


decentralization of power away from central authority (ex: central government sharing power with small states)

economic and monetary union

(EMU) 19 EU countries joined together and created common currency and created an economic subregion of Europe (Eurozone)

european union

a supranational organization today made up of 28 countries. United and integrated European economic and political life but being questioned with tense geographic separatism


an economic subregion of Europe resulting from the new currencies established by the EMU

family friendly policies

(Germany, France, Scandinavia) programs and policies promoting population growth from abortion bans and contraceptive bans to paid maternity leave for both parents, extensive child-care facilities and subsidies


flooded valley inlets from Ushaped glaciated valley

industrial revolution

machines replaced human labor in manufacturing and inanimate energy sources (water, steam, electricity, petroleum) powered machines (Europe was birthplace)

iron curtain

divided Europe into two geopolitical and economic blocs that rose after WWII agreement.


when a country claims lost lands or those that are claimed by people of the same ethnicity in another area

maritime west coast climate

moderate and moist, along atlantic coast of europe

maritime climate


medieval landscape

narrow, winding streets crowded with three or four story masonry buildings with little setback from the street. Few open spaces around churches and townhalls where public squares are clues to historical open-air marketplaces

mediterranean climate

found in southern europe, from spain to greece with dry summers

nation state

ideal of democratic states--arose in Europe and replaced fiefdoms and empires with autocracy (France, Italy, Germany, and UK)

North Atlantic treaty organization (NATO)

military treaty among western nations

renaissance - baroque period

much more open and spacious city landscapes with expansive ceremonial buildings, squares, monuments gardens and boulevards

schengen agreement

allowed for no border stations between member countries so you can travel through Europe without a passport but has become contravertial due to terrorism

Warsaw Pact

Soviet and Eastern european nations with nuclear weapons treaty to rival NATO


describes the geopolitical processes of small-scale independence movements based on ethnic fault lines