Unit 3 Interventions and Professional Relationships ethics


the generalization or normalization of behavior


reformulate problem in a client's words to make sure that you are on the same wavelength


calling attention to something


pulling together patterns of behavior to get a new understanding

reframing and relabeling

stating problem in a different way so a client can see possible solutions


no intention of changing behavior

contemplation stage

stage of change in which people conflicted emotion

preparation stage

stage of change in which people are getting ready to make a change
- collecting information about change

action stage

Stage of change in which people are actively changing a negative behavior or adopting a new, healthy behavior

maintenance stage

stage of change in which people maintain behavioral change
- avoiding temptation

relapse stage

stage of change where feelings of frustration and failure occur ( last stage)

Subpoena vs. Court Order

a subpoena and court order are NOT THE SAME. when receiving a subpoena, a social worker should respond and claim privilege, but not turn over records unless the court get subsequent order to do so.
- When a social worker gets a court order, he or she shou

- the social worker has the right to defend him/hersef and may need to release client information as part of defense. a social worker should try to limit this disclosure only to information required for defense

when a client sues a social worker

advocate role

in this role of social work the goal is to empower the client being served. social workers speak on the behalf of clients when others will not listen or when clients are unable to do so

broker role of social work

this role of social work is when the social worker is responsible for identifying, locating, and linking client systems to needed resources in a timely fashion

change agent role of social work

in this role of social work the social worker acts are part of a group or organization seeking to improve or restructure part of a service or organization

counselor role of social worker

this role of social work is focused on improving social fuctioning by affirming clients personal strengths and their capacities to deal with problems more effectively

mediator role of social work

this role of social work is when social workers intervene in disputes between parties to help them find compromise

acting as a resource

the primary role of social workers is to act as a _____ assuming the other roles are based on nature of client problems

complete participant

living the experience as a participant

participant observer

interacting with those who are participating

observer-as-participant role

role that is limited relationship with others participating-- primarily observer

complete observer

observes without becoming a participant
- removed from activity

active listening

technique in which social workers are sitting up straight and leaning toward clients in a relaxed and open manner.
- can involve commenting on clients statements, asking open-ended questions and making statements that is showing listening is occurring


Technique used by social worker that can show acceptance of client's feelings and promotes introspection or time to think about what has been learned
--- can be very helpful with a client who is displaying a high degree of emotion


the matching of awareness and experience with communication

Live modeling

modeling where the client is watching a real person perform the desired behavior

covert modeling

clients are asked to use their imagination, visualizing a particular behavior as another describes the imaginary situation in detail.

participant modeling

modeling technique in which a model demonstrates the desired behavior in a step-by-step, gradual process while the client is encouraged to imitate the model

harm reduction approach

a response to high-risk behavior that focuses on reducing the harm such behaviors have on people's lives
- seeks to reduce or minimize the adverse health and social consequences

Strategic Family Therapy

type of family therapy that is active, beef, direct and focuses on creating behavior change with the assumption that families will modify and be willing to adjust

1st Order Change (Strategic Family Therapy)

superficial behavioral change within a system that don't change structure of system

2nd Order Change (Strategic Family Therapy)

changes to systematic interaction pattern so that the system is reorganized and functions better

Bowenian Family Therapy

- the goal of this approach is not symptom reduction rather it is interested in improving the intergenerational transmission process
- important interconnected concepts are differentiation, emotional system, multigenerational transmission, emotional trian

structural family therapy

treatment in which therapists deeply involve themselves in family activities to change how family members arrange and organize interactions
- the social worker "joins" the family to assist in re-organization process

nuclear family

most basic unity in society based on bowenian therapy


core concept of bowenian family therapy
-- the extent that an individual can still be an individual while in emotional contact with the family

Emotional fusion (Bowenian Family Therapy)

Counterpart of differentiation, in which it is the tendency for family members to share an emotional response
- a result or poor interpersonal boundaries between family members
- little room for emotional autonomy

Emotional triangle (Bowenian Family Therapy)

The network of relationships among 3 people
- when anxiety is introduced with 2 people, a third party is recruited to reduce overall anxiety

Steps in Cognitive Restructuring

1)accepting that their self-statements, assumptions& beliefs determine or govern their emotional reaction to life's events;
2)identifying dysfunctional beliefs and patterns of thoughts that underlie their problems;
3)identifying situations that evoke dysf

Client self-monitoring

An approach to assessment in which clients track symptoms on logs or in journals, write descriptions, and record feelings, behaviors, and thoughts associated with particular times, events, symptoms, or difficulties.
3 components :
1) disturbing emotional

The Gottman method

specific couples therapy approach
healthy relationships are ones in which individuals know each others stresses/worries, share fondness/admiration, maintain sense of positiveness, manage conflict, trust one another, and are committed
focuses on conflictin

permanency planning

an approach to child welfare focused on getting children back into their homes if they are safe


the practice of paying close attention to what is being experienced in the present moment, inside the body, and the external world

1) assessment
2) planning
3) linking
4) monitoring
5) advocacy

5 components of case management

case management

the primary goal of ______ is to optimize client functioning and well-being by providing and corroding high quality services

primary prevention

type of prevents who's Efforts to prevent an injury or illness from ever occurring.

secondary prevention

type of prevention that occurs after a disease or illness or injury has occurred. focus is on slowing progression or limiting long term effects

tertiary prevention

type of prevention that focuses on managing complicated, longterm disease, illness, or injuries. the goal is to prevent further deterioration and maximize quality of life because disease is ow established and primary prevention activities have been unsuce

formative evaluation

an ongoing process that allows for feedback to be implement during service delivery
-need assessment is an example

summative evaluation

type of evaluation that occurs at the end of services and provides an overall description of their effectiveness
-impact evaluation cost- benefit analysis are examples

Intradisciplinary team

Single discipline team approach , such as social work.

interdisciplinary team

a group of health care professionals with varied medical educations, backgrounds, and experiences who work together to deliver the best possible care for each patient

risk management

an ongoing process that consists of preventative strategies and corrective actions that result from audits

2) conflict

stages of community based decision making

Social Planning

The process by which a group or community decides its goals and strategies relating to societal issues


a strategy to influence social policy by trying to quiet dissenters by channeling their energies into more legit and less disruptive activities

service network

a group of collaborating social service agencies who are partnered in providing services that complement one another in order to comprehensively meet clients needs

community organizing

a macro level approach that focuses on harnessing the collective power of communities to help tackle issues of shared concern

scientific management

classical organizational theory that is based on (a) finding the one "best way" to perform each task; (b) carefully matching each worker to each task; (c) closely supervising workers, using reward and punishment as motivators; and (d) managing and control

Webster's Bureaucratic Theory

classical organizational theory that emphasized the need for a hierarchical structure of power to ensure stability and uniformity. Weber also put forth the notion that organizational behavior is a network of human interactions, where all behavior could be

administrative theory

classical organizational theory that emphasized establishing a universal set of management principles that could be applied to all organizations.

human relations theory (theory y)

neoclassical organizational theory that evolved as a reaction to the tough, authoritarian structure of classical theory. It displayed genuine concern for human needs in order to produce creativity and emphasized the importance of cohesive work groups, par

systems approach

modern organizational theory that concern the organization as a system of interrelated, mutually dependent subsystems

Sociotechnical approach

modern organizational theory that says the organization as composed of a social system, technical system, and its environment. These interact with each other, so it is necessary to balance them appropriately for effective functioning of the organization.

Contingency or situational approach

modern organizational theory that recognizes that organizational systems are interrelated with their environment and that different environments require different organizational systems for effectiveness

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, and national origin in programs and activities receiving federal financial assistance at a federal level

Older Americans Act of 1965 (OAA)

offers grants to states to provide supportive services for people over 60 years old

Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act of 1974

Law enacted in 1974 that requires the reporting of child abuse or suspected abuse
-provides federal funding for states to support prevention, assessment investigation, persecution and treatment

Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978

gives American Indian/Native American/Indigenous nations or organizations jurisdiction over child welfare cases that involve their children in order to protect the integrity of American Indian/Native American/Indigenous families. P. 148
-a) verify the eth

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)

Protects a student's educational records and is specific to educational institutions that receive federal funding.
- when a student turn 18 years old these right transfer to them
-parents also have the right to request that a school correct records that t

Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975
--now known as the individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA)

act that established the right of all children to a free and appropriate education, regardless of handicapping condition between the ages of 3-21
- established IEP's for each student and must be educated in the "least restrictive environment"
- no extra c

The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare act of 1980

law that focuses on family preservation efforts to help keep families together and children out of out of home placements.
-This law focuses on family reunification of adoption if the child is removed from the home. This act mandates court to review child

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)

civil rights legislation that prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability and has been amended and affords similar protections as the Civil Rights act of 1964 for discrimination based on race, religion, sex and national origin.
--ADA requires empl

that they attempted to explain people's motivation to work strictly as a function of economic reward

major deficiency with classical organizational theories

Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) of 1991

Introduced a new set of federal requirements intended to implement advance directive policies at all health care facilities that receive federal funding through Medicaid and Medicare programs. P. 149
-The Act specified that these facilities must inform cl

advance directives

a legal way of indicating that a person has given the legal rights to a designated person to make decisions on his or her behalf about continuation of support measures should the individual be incapable physically or mentally of making wants known.

living will

a type of advance directive that allows individuals to retain some control over what happens at the end of their lives, even if the individuals are then no longer competent to make personal choices for terminal care, by specifying their wishes while they

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993

This federal law requires employers with 50 or more employees to provide their employees with up to 12 weeks of family or medical leave during any twelve-month period. During the leave period, the employer must continue to provide benefits to the employee

The Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA) of 1994

Act that prohibit agencies from refusing or delaying foster or adoptive placements because of a child's or foster/adoptive parent's race, color, or national origin, and prohibits agencies from considering race, color, or national origin as a basis for den

the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) of 1994

Has improved the criminal justice response to violence against women by strengthening federal penalties for repeated sex offenders and creating a federal "rape shield law" which is intended to prevent offenders from using victims' past sexual conduct agai

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996

was considered to be a fundamental shift in both the method and goal of federal cash assistance to the poor. It added a workforce development component to welfare legislation, encouraging employment among the poor.
----PRWORA instituted Temporary Assistan

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

provides individuals with access to their medical records and more control over how their personal health information is used and disclosed. It represents a uniform, federal floor of privacy protections for individuals across the country.
---State laws pr

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010

expands access to insurance, increases protections, emphasizes prevention and wellness, improves quality and system performance, expands the health workforce, and curbs rising health care costs.
--Key provisions of the ACA that intend to address rising he

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) of 2014

reauthorizes the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 with several key changes in areas such as Workforce Development Boards; One-Stop Operations; Job-Driven Training for Adults and Dislocated Workers; and Integrated Performance and Youth Services.

Quality Assurance

attempting to gather and assess a range of information on quality, and they work to implement needed improvements on an ongoing basis.


attempting to influence public policy through education, lobbying, or political pressure.

leadership is more focused on he future, dealing with uncertainty and instability, and prospectively considering the ways in which organizational operations need to change.
- Management is more focused on the effectiveness, efficiency, and planning

leadership vs management


financial management technique that the short- and long-term strategies used to ensure fiscal solvency


financial management technique that describes the gathering of human, material, and economic resources through such means as fundraising, grant writing, contractual arrangements, fees, purchase of merchandise, and so on


financial management technique that describes the distribution of resources internally (such as to specific departments) or externally (such as by contracting outside organization or using consultants)

internal control

financial management technique that describes the the establishment of standardized policies and procedures relating to all transactions and events involving monetary items (including the use of generally accepted accounting principles and adherence to co

Recording and Reporting

the financial management technique that describes the use of a manual, automated, or computerized system to list and classify all transactions of a fiscal nature in journals and ledgers to generate statements and reports


financial management technique that describes the periodic review of financial activities to assess their efficiency and effectiveness at meeting the goal of financial accountability

administrative supervision

type of supervision that aims to ensure that a social worker is accountable to the public as well as to his or her organization's policies.

education supervision

type of supervision. that establishes a learning alliance between a supervisor and a social worker with the aim of teaching new skills or refining existing ones.

Supportive Supervision

type of supervision that is focused on increasing performance by decreasing job-related stress that interferes with functioning.

cost-benefit analysis

program evaluation technique that determines the financial costs of operating a program as compared with the fiscal benefits of its outcomes.
A cost-benefit ratio is generated to determine whether, and the extent to which, the costs exceed the benefits.

Cost-effectiveness analysis

is similar to a cost-benefit analysis, but distinct. It considers the benefits that are not measured in monetary terms, such as illnesses prevented and/or lives saved. It does not produce a cost-benefit ratio, but may focus on the most financially efficie

Outcome Assessment

type of program evaluation that sees the process of determining whether a program has achieved its intended goal(s). It involves collecting evidence through assessment, analyzing the data, and then using the findings to make programmatic changes if needed

Social justice
Dignity and worth of the person
Importance of human relationships

core values are the foundation of social work practice:

1)Identify ethical standards, (always go to the NASW Code of Ethics first�do not rely on supervisor or coworkers)
2)Determine whether there is an ethical issue or dilemma
3)Weigh ethical issues in light of key social work values and principles as defined


Family Projection Process

Describes the primary way parents transmit their emotional problems to a child- part of Bowenian method


Family: patriarchal system in which a wife has lower status and is subservient to her father, husband, and oldest son; obligation to parents and respect for elders; hierarchical family structure with strictly prescribed roles and rules of behavior and con