Theories - PEO

PEO Theorists

Mary Law, Barbara Cooper, Susan Strong, Debra Stewart, Patricia Rigby, and Lori Letts

Occupational performance

Interaction between person, environment and occupation

The greater the overlap between person, environment, and occupation, the ______________ the occupational performance.
A. lesser
B. greater

B. greater

Theoretical foundations of PEO include...

- Rogers Client Centered Approach
- Lawton's Environmental Press for Mastery
- Csikszentmhalyi's Flow Theories of Occupational Engagement

What does the overlap between person, environment, and occupation represent?

Occupational performance

6 Components of Roger's Client-Centered Approach

1. Client has autonomy and choice
2. Respect for diversity
3. Therapeutic partnership and shared responsibility
4. Enablement and empowerment
5. Contextual congruence
6. Accessibility and flexibility

Client has autonomy and choice

Listen to the client and gain an understanding. When clients set their own goals, they are naturally motivated to put forth their best effort

Respect for diversity

Unconditional positive regard. Clients deserve the benefit of doubt just because they are human

Therapeutic partnership and shared responsibility

Establishing a trusting relationship

Enablement and empowerment

- Enablement: using skills, knowledge, and techniques to assist the client in doing something he or she wants
- Empowerment: therapist letting go of control and trusting client to carry out a plan of action

Contextual congruence

Recognizing environmental conditions and demands

accessibility and flexibility

Occupational therapists offer evaluations and interventions which are unique to each client

Lawton's Environmental Press for Mastery

Adaptation depends upon the degree of fit between environment and demands for occupational performance and the individual's competence to meet those demands

Components of Lawton's Environmental Press for Mastery

1. Behavioral competence
2. Psychological well-being
3. Perceived quality of life
4. Objective environment

Csikszentmhalyi's Flow Theories of Occupational Engagement

Flow: an optimal psychological state that an individual experiences when fully engaged in an activity that is both challenging and deeply satisfying to him or her

What is trying to be achieved through PEO?

Getting the client into a state of flow

Wilcock's definition of flow

A state of consciousness when people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter; of optimal experience transcendence, and enjoyment when individuals are challenged but engaged within the scope of their abilities.

In isolating the optimal flow experience, opportunities for activity or engagement must closely match or be _________ than the individual's skill level.
A. slightly higher
B. slightly less

A. slightly higher

What 6 things must occur to accomplish flow?

1. Intense and focused concentration on doing in the present moment.
2. Merging action and awareness
3. Loss of reflective self-consciousness
4. A sense of control over whatever happens in an unfolding scenario
5. Distortion of temporal experience, in whi

Too great of a challenge that exceeds the person's ability results in a state of...

Heightened anxiety

Too litter challenge results in...


Key Domains of PEO

1. Person
2. Environment
3. Occupation
4. Occupational performance

Components of Person

- Physical
- Cognitive
- Sensory
- Affective
- Spiritual

Definition of environment and it's components?

Sum total of what surrounds a person.
1. Physical
2. Social
3. Cultural
4. Institutional

Assumptions of occupation

- Human need for occupation
- The effects of occupation related to health and well-being
- How occupation organizes time and structures life
- Provides fulfillment and social connectedness
- Brings joy and satisfaction
- Is purposeful, gives meaning and e

Areas that provide a framework for occupational therapy are...

- Self-care
- Leisure
- Rest/sleep

Which evaluation tool does PEO use?

Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM)


Evaluate and determine the strengths and weaknesses for each aspect (person, environment, and occupation) so that the intervention can target all three aspects

Which 5 essential elements enable occupations?

1. Presence of an occupational challenge
2. Need for occupational enablement
3. Client specific goals/challenges/solutions
4. Multidisciplinary knowledge base
5. Reasoning process ~ complexity