Chapter 1: Overview of professional counseling


a form of helping that focused on serious problems of an intra-psychic nature with treatment delivered by a trained professional

professional counselor

a professional relationship that empowers diverse individuals, families, and groups to accomplish mental health, wellness, education, and career goals

Extratherapeutic factors

the client's factors (ex. willingness to change)

therapeutic relationship factors

the characteristics of the counselor such as warmth, empathy, and acceptance

hope and expectancy

the client's perception that her or his presenting issues will be alleviated or that therapy will have an even better outcome

therapeutic models and techniques

theoretical approaches and strategies that counselors employ in treatment and intervention

intake assessment

the relevant factors that contribute to the client's present issues

treatment planning

a collaborative effort between the client and the counselor to generate therapeutic goals and ways to achieve them

therapeutic interventions

theoretical approaches and treatment goals that professional counselors use to help clients accomplish set goals


the therapeutic process and outcomes to determine whether those interventions served the treatment goals

formative evaluation

an evaluative method that occurs throughout counseling in order to periodically assess the client's progress toward therapeutic goals (Process)

summative evaluation

an evaluative method that occurs toward the end of the counseling process to determine whether the therapeutic goals have been accomplished (Outcome)


the client can generalize what she or he learned in counseling to other life contexts such as family, community, and work; when a counselor and client mutually agree that the client has achieved the treatment goals and ir provides a sense of closure for b

therapeutic alliance

a collaborative process whereby both client and therapist agree on shared therapeutic goals; collaborate on tasks designed to bring about successful outcomes; and establish a relationship based on trust, acceptance, and competence

micro skills

the foundational skills of effective helping relationships;


communicate to the client that you are attending to her story through nonverbal and verbal acknowledgment


pay attention to the client's story to accurately capture his thoughts and emotions


pause after the client's statement to help her elaborate more on the story and/or to provide a brief moment for the client to reflect on her story


rephrase the client's primary statement or response to let him know that you are listening and paying attention

reflection of feelings

reflect the expression, emotions and/or feelings associated with the particular event or story that the client tells you


capture the content or identify themes or patterns associated with the client's story in order to keep the therapeutic conversation focused and to promote clarification


ask open-ended questions to facilitate the client's understanding and exploration of the story


a method for treating mental illness via dialogues between the client and psychoanalyst

humanistic approach

focuses on the relationship between the client and counselor

behavioral approach

counseling focuses on changing a person's thoughts and beliefs in order to facilitate behavioral changes


ethnographic variables (race, ethnicity, religion, history, common ancestry) demographic variables (age, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, geographic location), status variables (social, economic, educational), and affiliation variables (formal

multicultural approach

addresses the importance of providing treatment and interventions that pertain to the unique needs of diverse populations and are relevant to the client's cultural reference.


a professional relationship that empowers diverse individuals, families, and groups to accomplish mental health, wellness, education, and career goals