Chapter 5- Civil Rights

In Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978), the Supreme Court determined that __________ were unconstitutional.

Segregation by race in schools

According to the Supreme Court decisions in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke and the two University of Michigan cases noted in the chapter, what sorts of affirmative action programs for admission to public universities are permissible, and

To provide special opportunities to those who suffer from discrimination

What were some of the core principles championed by Dr. Martin Luther King?

Nonviolent protest, civil disobedience

What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ban?

Discrimination in public accommodations

Women were guaranteed the right to vote by the __________ Amendment.

Equal rights

What was the Civil Rights Act?

It sought an end to racial segregation and discrimination.

In spite of the Equal Pay Act of 1963, women in the early twenty-first century still earn less than men, which led President Barack Obama to sign what law?

Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act

In what types of cases has Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 helped women achieve key victories?

Allowance of voluntary programs to redress historical discrimination against women.

What precipitated the Montgomery Bus Boycott?

Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat in front of the colored section of the bus for a white man.

What strategies for expanding civil rights did the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. support?

Formation of new groups, SCLC -focusing on nonviolent protest and civil disobedience. SNCC- shine the spotlight on segregated public accommodations
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom and the "I Have a Dream" speech

What was the result of the Regents of the University of California v. Bakke decision?

The Supreme Court ruled that a university's use of racial "quotas" in its admissions process was unconstitutional, but a school's use of "affirmative action" to accept more minority applicants was constitutional in some circumstances.

What are civil rights? Why was the Civil Rights Act of 1964 so important in furthering civil rights for all groups?

The government-protected rights of individuals against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by governments or individuals. Because it outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women.

What were the Black Codes passed by many of the former Confederate states designed to do?

Designed to restrict freed blacks' activity and ensure their availability as a labor force now that slavery had been abolished

What were Black Codes?

Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the war.

What does the 14th amendment do?

Allows citizenship to any person born in the US, forbids a state to deny a person his or her natural rights.

A law that classified people according to __________ would be given strict scrutiny by the Supreme Court to determine its constitutionality.

Suspect Classifications

What is Title IX, and what kinds of situations would most likely be violations of it?

� Provisions of the education amendments of 1972 that bars educational institutions that receive federal funds from discriminating against female students.
� Situations with violations would be sport facilities, access to premium playing times, and qualit

How does federal law deal with American Indian tribes?

Considers Indian tribes distinct government, their land should never be taken from them without their consent, and their property right and liberty shall never be invaded or disturbed, unless in lawful laws authorized by congress.

What is the Equal Rights Amendment?

Proposed amendments to the constitution that states "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account sex

Be familiar with examples of civil disobedience and nonviolent protest.

Civil disobedience- Rosa parks bus boycott, Brown v. Board
Nonviolent protest- organized boycotts, sit ins in segregated restaurants and bus stations

What did the Supreme Court determine was unconstitutional in Brown v. Board of Education?

Racial segregation in public schools

The Thirteenth Amendment bans slavery. When was it passed?


What was the basis for the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that upheld the constitutionality of a state law requiring segregated railroad facilities?

They believed that separation of the races was instinctive and could not be changed by laws.

What was the primary focus at the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention for activists like Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Lucretia Mott?

Women's rights

What are the common arguments made by an opponent of affirmative action policies?

They argue that the Constitution is not, and should not be blind to color or sex

Does the 14th amendment affect both men and women?


What is the Equal Pay Act of 1963?

Legislation that requires employers to pay men and women equal pay for equal work.

How does the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) define a disabled person? What rights are guaranteed to disabled people under the ADA? What infrastructure must be created to ensure these rights?

Someone with a physical or mental impairment that limits one or more "life activities" or who has a record of such impairment. Guarantees access to public facilities, employment, and communication services. Acquire or modify work equipment, adjust work sc

How has the Equal Rights Amendment affected women's civil rights?

Equality of rights under the law should not be denied

What were the Jim Crow laws?

Laws enacted by southern states that required segregation in public schools, theaters, hotels, and other public accommodations.

What was the objective of the women's suffrage movement?

For women to have the same rights any citizen of the US should have

What was the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy? What was the penalty for a soldier who violated this policy? Why was it implemented? What is the current status of the policy?

The military was no longer to ask gays and lesbians if they were homosexual, but it barred them from revealing their sexual orientation under threat of discharge. Despite the compromise, the armed services discharged thousands of the basis of their sexual

The Supreme Court's decision in Lawrence v. Texas (2003) primarily enhanced the civil liberties of __________.

Gays and lesbians

Why did Congress pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965?

The cumulative effect of collective actions including sit ins, boycotts, marches, and freedom rides as well as bombings, lynching's, and other deaths inflicted retaliation- led congress to pass the voting rights. Kennedys request to ban discrimination in

What was the Supreme Court's justification for overturning the separate-but-equal doctrine?

Brown vs. Board, the supreme court ruled segregation in the public schools

Compare and contrast the use of nonviolent protest (also known as civil disobedience) and litigation during the civil rights movement. Which was more successful and why?

Nonviolent- deliberate refusal to obey the law or comply with orders of public officials. Litigation- strategy that would first target segregation in professional graduate education. Civil disobedience, because people obey the laws in a proper manor, less

What were the effects of Gratz v Bollinger and Grutter v Bollinger?

� Gratz v Bollinger- the court struck down Michigan's undergraduate point system, which gave minority applicants twenty automatic points simply because they were minorities.
� Grutter v Bollinger- the court voted to uphold the constitutionality of the Uni

Does the Supreme Court affirm the right of consenting adults to engage in private sexual activity?


How did the Supreme Court clarify the 13th amendment in The Slaughterhouse Cases in 1873?

Has been invoked to seek a stop to the estimated 100,000 to 300,000 American children and teens forced into sex trafficking each year.

What did Jim Crow laws mandate?

Laws enacted by southern states that required segregation in public schools, theaters, hotels, and other public accommodations.

What was the Supreme Court's rationale in the Civil Rights Cases (1883) for why Congress could not prohibit discrimination in public accommodations?

Supreme court decided that discrimination in a variety of public accommodations, including theaters, hotels, and railroads, could not be prohibited by the act because such discrimination was private, not state, discrimination.

What did Brown v. Board of Education do?

It ended legal school segregation by holding that separate is not equal.

What was the main purpose for the March on Washington?

To support the law that Kennedy had passed banning discrimination in public; to demonstrate support for anti-discrimination legislation