american government ch. 1 and 2 test


the branch of government that has the power to make laws and frame public policies


the branch of government that has the power to enforce and administer law


the branch of government that has the power to interpret laws, determine their meaning, and settle disputes

force theory

one person/small group claimed control over and area and forced all within it to submit to their rule

evolutionary theory

the state developed naturally out of the early family of which one person was the head and thus the government, network of families became a clan, and tied themselves to the land

divine right theory

God created the state and gave those of royal birth a right to rule

social contract theory

free humans agreed with one another to create a state and gave up individual power to promote the safety and well being of all


a single person or small group holds power

john locke

he helped to develop the social contract theory


a single person holds unlimited political power


a small group that is usually self appointed holds all the power

unitary government

a centralized gov that may have localized govs for convenience. gov may not have all the power and can be democratic

ferderal government

power is divided between central and local governments. an authority superior to both makes the division of powers on a geographical basis which cant be changed by one alone


an alliance of of independent states. central government has power over only what the local government allows it to

presidential government

separation of powers between executive and legislative branches of government. president is chosen independent of legislature and holds office for a fixed term and has a number of significant powers, not subject to direct control of legislature

parliamentary government

executive is prime minister or premier and their cabinet. they are part of parliament which is the legislature


a legislative body of 2 chambers or houses

magna carta

great charter forced upon king john of england by his barons in 1215. established that power of monarchy wasnt absolute, but limited, guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility

popular sovereignty

principle of the american government that the people are the source of any and all governmental power, government can only exist by the consent of the governed

articles of confederation

plan of government adopted by the continental congress after the revolution. established strong states but very few powers to the central government


formal approval, final consent to the effectiveness of a constitution, amendment, or treaty

3/5 compromise

agreement at constitutional convention to count a slave as a fraction of a person when determining the population of a state


least number of members who must be present for a legislative body to conduct business, the majority

life liberty pursuit of happiness

the 3 unalienable rights of humans listed in the declaration of independence


favored the ratification of the constitution


opposed the constitution, anti centralized government, wanted a bill of rights

tax, unicameral, currency, law 9/13, local courts, local army, amendments 13/13, local law enforcement, ratification unanimous

problems with the articles of the confederation

alexander hamilton

created one currency for all of the states

16th amendment

created income tax

senate and house of representatives

2 houses of congress

james madison

the main author of the constitution

virginia plan

this plan created a strong central government with 3 branches, bicameral legislature, house of reps would be proportionate to state population and directly elected by the people, gave legislature more power than others


branch that had (has?) more power than the others

new jersey plan

small states made this plan because they were fearful of being outvoted by larger state. a senate with equal representation across the board. wanted to keep the articles of confederation and just amend them

the great compromise

another name for the conneticut plan

the conneticut plan

bicameral, 2 houses in congress. the senate (2 votes per state) would be elected by the legislatures. the house of representatives would be based on the population and directly elected by the people.

roger sherman

created the conneticut plan aka the great compromise

marco rubio and bill nelson

our 2 representatives right here right now


the number of representatives in the house of reps. redistributed every 10 years by the census


the age of the constitution in years

september 17

the birthday of the constitution


document that outlines the responsibilities of our government


goals of the constitution. union justice peace defense service liberty.

article 1

article: legislative branch: congress. how a bill becomes a law

article 2

article: executive branch: terms power info of president, impeachment

article 3

article: judicial branch: court system

article 4

article: relations among states

article 5

article: amending the constitution

article 6

article: supremacy of national government

article 7

article: ratification


number of amendments

bill of rights

first 10 amendments


author of the bill of rights

washington, franklin, madison, hamilton, jay

federalist leaders (5)

hamilton madison jay

authors of federalist papers (3)

thomas jefferson, patrick henry, john hancock

anti federalist leaders (3)

we the people, of the united states, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity do orda

write the preamble of the united states of america

1 state = 1 vote

how were laws passed under the articles of the confederation?

majority vote both houses

how are laws passed now?

unanimous 13/13

how were amendments made under the articles of the confederation?


if you are a criminal and you flee to another state/country, they must send you back/arrest you/assist in getting you tried blah blah blah

full faith in credit

honors certificates, degrees, licenses etc in other states