civics ch 6 notes

citizenship, age, and residency

states require that any person wishing to vote must meet a specific qualifications for


can set any qualifications they choose for voting, so long as those qualifications do not violate any restrictions or provision set out in the Constitution

citizens of U.S. and residents of the state

many states require that all voters be

party identification

the single most significant predictor of a person's partisan voting behavior is his or her

independents has grown

as party id has weakened


to prevent fraudulant voting, most states require voters to

voting on president is more important than voting on congress

statistics say it is clear many people find

federal elections

more of the electorate vote in general

nonvoting voter

a voter who votes in the presidential election but does not vote for a congressional candidate in the smae election is called a

by mail

congress requires states to allow voter registration ______ to make it easier to register

people are more likely to vote

when an election is very close


is unfair because it sets district boudaries to decrease on group's voting strength

men and women

the differences in voting patterns between______ & ______ have been shown to be issue-oriented

higher, 16th

voter turnout among 18 year olds was ____ immediately after passage of the _________ Amendment, but then dropped

Eliminated all literacy qualifications,
Required ballots to be printed in english and the lang. of minority involved,
Broadened the laws preclearance provisions to cover other minority groups

amendments to the 1965 voting right act:

ballot fatigue

when fewer votes are cast for offices farther down the ballot

Apathy or distrust of politics,
Long-term mental, or physical illness or illness on an election day,
Rules and regulations that make registration and voting cumbersome

reasons for nonvoting in U.S. elections today:

The republican party

drew northern African Americans before the 1930s because it wa the party of Abe Lincoln

15th amendment

(1870) did not secure the right of African Americans to vote because the federal gov. did not intervene to uphold the amendment

one that granted suffrage in theory and one that accomplished suffrage in fact

the expansion of suffrage to African Americans took place in two stage:

ruling that at least some functions of political parties are public, not private

one step that helped clear the way for African American suffrage was the supreme court's

amendments and civil rights acts

the expansion of suffrage in the U.S. has been moved forward by

Removing restrictive requirements based on religious belief,
Eliminating requirements based on race,
Eliminating requirements based on tax payments

long-term trends marking the expansion of suffrae in the U.S.

literacy test

worked to deny the right to vote to African Americans because they were asked questions that were more difficult than those asked of prospective white voters

minority groups

literacy requirements were usually aimed at

civil rights act of 1957

established a federal commission to investigate claims of individual voter discrmination

poll taxes, literacy tests, threats and social pressures

the following have been used to keep African Americans from voting: