Transcultural Health Care:

6.8 billion

world population

mandarin chinese

most common first spoken language


people having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe and includes middle easterners, irish, german, italian, lebanese, turkish, arab, and polish

black or african american

people having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa and includes Nigerians and Haitians or any person who self-designates this category regardless of origin

american Indian and Alaskan native

people having origins in any of the original peoples of north, south, or central america and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment


people having origins in any of the original peoples of the far east, southeast asia, or the indian subcontinent. This category includes the terms asian indian, chinese, filipino, korean, japanese, vietnamese, burmese, hmong, pakistani, and thai

native hawaiian and other pacific islanders

people having origins in any of the original peoples of hawaii, guam, samoa, tahiti, the mariana islands, and chuuk


totality of socially transmitted behavioral patterns, arts, beliefs, values, customs, lifeways, and all other products of human work and thought characteristics of a population of people that what guide their worldview and decision making

tertiary, secondary, and primary

culture includes 3 levels _____________ ________________ ____________

tertiary level

level of culture that is visible to outsiders such as things that can be seen or worn or otherwise observed

secondary level

level of culture in which only members know the rules of behavior and can articulate them

primary level

level of culture that represents the deepest level in which rules are known by all, observed by all, implicit and taken for granted.


state of mind or feeling about some aspect of a culture (learned)


consists of the thoughts and beliefs that reflect the social needs and aspirations of an individual or an ethnocultural group.

cultural awareness

has to do with the appreciation of the external signs of diversity, such as the arts, music,dress, foods, and physical characteristcs

cultural sensitivity

has to do with personal attitudes and not saying things that might be offensive to someone from a cultural or ethnic background different from health care providers

cultural competence

having the knowledge, abilities, and skills to deliver care congruent with the patient's cultural beliefs and practices.

unconscious incompetence

not being aware that one is lacking knowledge

conscious incompetence

being aware that one is lacking knowledge about another culture

conscious competence

learning about the patients culture, verifying generalizations about the patients culture, and providing cultural-specific interventions

unconscious competence

difficult to accomplish and potentially dangerous because individual differences exist within cultural group


the universal tendency of human beings to think that their ways of thinking, acting, and believing, are the only right proper and natural ways

human genome project

determined that 99.9% of all humans share the same genes


genetic in origin and includes physical characteristics that are similar among members of the group, such as skin color, blood type, and hair and eye color


the way individuals or groups of people look at the universe to form basic assumptions and values about their lives and the world around them.


reducing numerous characteristics of an individual or group of people to a general form that renders them indistinguishable--made about the behaviors of any individual or large group of people is almost certain to be an oversimplification


an oversimplified conception, opinion, or belief about some aspect of an individual or group


a group of people with a culture that that differentiates them from the larger culture of which they are apart of


if the subculture is characterized by a systematic opposition to the dominant culture, then it may be described as a ___________________?

cultural humility

focuses on the process of intercultural exchange, paying explicit attention to clarifying the professionals values and beliefs through self-reflection and incorporating the cultural characteristics of the professional and the patient into a mutually benef

cultural saftey

popular term used in Australia, new Zealand, and Canada. Expresses the diversity that exists within cultural groups and includes the social determinants of health, religion, and gender, in addition to ethnicity

cultural leverage

process whereby the principles of cultural competence are deliberately invoked to develop interventions.


occurs when a person gives up the traits of his or her culture of origin as a result of contact with another culture.

bicultural acculturation

occurs when an individual is able to function equally in the dominant culture and in ones own culture


gradual adoption and incorporation of characteristics of the prevailing culture


a natural conscious and unconscious conditioning process of learning accepted cultural norms, values, and roles in society and achieving competence in ones culture through socialization


the sense that each person has a separate and equal place in the community and where individuals who are considered "eccentrics or local characters" are tolerated.

individualistic culture

a culture in which a person's identity is based mainly on ones personal accomplishments, career, and challenges

collectivistic culture

a culture in which people are socialized to view themselves as members of a larger group, family, school, church, educational setting, workplace, and so on.


certain human rights should not be violated

cultural imperialism

practice of extending the policies and practices of one group to disenfranchised and minority groups

cultural relativism

belief that the behaviors and practices of people should be judged only from the context of their cultural system (abortion, physical punishment, etc.)

cultural imposition

intrusive application of the majority groups cultural view upon individuals and families.

genetic testing

healthcare providers must be careful about forcefully imposing their values regarding ________________ _______________?