Exam 1: Cameron Practice Questions

All of the following are cardinal signs of inflammation EXCEPT:
a. heat
b. redness of skin
c. atrophy resulting from disuse
d. swelling

c. atrophy resulting from disuse

during the vascular response, capillary permeability is increased because of all of the following EXCEPT:
a. hageman factor
b. histamine
c. bradykinin
d. fibronectin

d. fibronectin

all of the following attract leukocytes or release agents that attract leukocytes to injured tissue EXCEPT:
a. prostaglandins
b. platelet-derived growth factor
c. histamine
d. macrophages

a. prostaglandins

during the cellular response of the inflammatory stage, all of the following are true EXCEPT:
a. monocytes predominate in the early phases of inflammation because of their high concentration in blood
b. basophils and mast cells release histamine, which co

a. monocytes predominate in the early phases of inflammation because of their high concentration in blood

all of the following are true regarding Hageman factor EXCEPT:
a. it is a clotting factor
b. it causes increased vascular permeability
c. it caused vasodilation
d. it is activated when vessels are damaged

c. it causes vasodilation

all of the following are true regarding edema EXCEPT:
a. transudate is made up of predominantly dissolved electrolytes and water
b. exudate has a higher specific gravity than transudate because it has a higher protein concentration
c. the clinical manifes

c. the clinical manifestation of edema is known as ecchymosis

all of the following are true regarding prostaglandins EXCEPT:
a. they are produced by nearly every cell in the body
b. their synthesis is inhibited by both NSAIDS and steroids
c. they are released in response to damage to the cell membrane
d. they are ac

d. they are active only in the inflammatory stage

all of the following are true regarding collagen EXCEPT:
a. fibroblasts initially produce type III collagen in the proliferative phase
b. during the proliferative phase the injured area has the greatest amount of collage
c. type I collage is replaced by t

c. type I collagen is replaced by type III collagen

local factors that can affect the healing response include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. disease
b. size of the injury
c. infection
d. application of physical agents

a. disease

all of the following are true regarding the healing capacity of cartilage EXCEPT:
a. cartilage has limited ability to heal because it lacks lymphatics, nerves, and blood vessels
b. injuries to both cartilage and subchondral bone heal better than injuries

c. healed cartilage has a normal proteolytic content and is at no greater risk of injury than before the injury

all of the following are true regarding ligament healing EXCEPT:
a. injured mature repaired ligamentous tissue is 30% to 50% stronger than uninjured tissue
b. capsular and extracapsular ligaments may have adequate repair potential, whereas intracapsular l

a. injured mature repaired ligamentous tissue is 30% to 50% stronger than uninjured tissue

all of the following are true regarding scar tissue EXCEPT:
a. keloid scars extend beyond the original boundaries of the injury and invade surrounding tissue
b. hypertrophic scars are raised and remain within the margin of the wound
c. the treatment of ke

c. the treatment of keloid scars through surgery, medication, and irradiation is generally successful

all of the following are true regarding systemic factors EXCEPT:
a. wounds in children often heal faster than adults
b. corticosteroids accelerate all phases of healing
c. circulatory compromise can inhibit healing caused by decreased oxygen tension
d. de

b. corticosteroids accelerate all phases of healing

all of the following regarding trauma to muscle tissue are true EXCEPT:
a. muscle fiber may die
b. new muscle fibers proliferate
c. a hematoma may develop
d. a calcified hematoma may develop if the muscle trauma is severe

b. new muscle fibers proliferate

during the inflammation phase of wound healing, a thin fibrin lattice is formed over the wound. all of the following are true regarding the fibrin lattice EXCEPT:
a. it is created by cross linkages of fibrin and fibronectin
b. it provides significant tens

b. it provides significant tensile strength to the wound

all of the following describe chronic inflammation EXCEPT:
a. follows poor to no resolution of the acute inflammatory process
b. predominance of neutrophils over lymphocytes
c. fibroblast proliferation
d. may by prolonged for months to years

b. predominance of neutrophils over lymphocytes

which of the following defines margination

neutrophils accumulating in layers along the endothelium of the vessel

which of the following is the correct sequence of events during the vascular response

migration, margination, pavementing, emigration

which of the following results in edema

increased capillary hydrostatic pressure, increased interstitial osmotic pressure, & an overwhelmed lymphatic system

which of the following is correct regarding superficial wounds that are sutured

they heal by primary injection

which of the following differentiates epithelialization from wound contraction

epithelialization covers the wound surface superficially

according to the "picture frame" theory, which of the following is true regarding wound closure

linear wounds with one narrow dimension heal more rapidly than square or circular wounds

which of the following contributes to the red and swollen appearance of scar during the proliferative stage of wound healing

increase in vascularity, increase in fluid, & innervation of the healing site

which of the following causes pain during the inflammatory process

presence of edema, vasoconstriction of damaged vessels, & irritation of pain receptors

which of the following is characteristic of a soft callus following bone fracture

it remains until bony fragments are united by fibrous or cartilaginous tissue

which of the following is LEAST likely to contribute to excessive collagen deposition

early introduction of slow active range of motion

when considering optimal tendon healing, which of the following treatments is most appropriate

early gentle passive range of motion to promote optimal orientation of the collagen fibrils

which of the following is the correct order of the stages of fracture healing

impaction, induction, inflammation, soft callus, hard callus, remodeling

a diet deficient in which of the following may result in decreased collagen synthesis

protein, zinc, & magnesium

given the length of the scar maturation phase, treatment of scars is appropriate

for up to 24 months

the acute inflammatory process usually lasts

no more than 1 week

features of chronic pain include

substantial psychosocial changes & belief that pain has an unidentifiable organic cause

acute pain is generally

of less than 6 months duration, well localized, mediated through slowly conducting pathways

a common pain referral pattern is from the diaphragm to

the lateral tip of either shoulder

which structure frequently refers pain to the right shoulder or the inferior angle of the right scapula

gallbladder

when working with a patient who presents with chronic pain, the therapist should consider which of the following

whether counseling would be beneficial

mrs. jones presents to your clinic with complaints of left shoulder pain with activity. you find that her pain is aggravated by repetitive raising of her left arm but also by fast walking and by repetitive raising of her right arm. which of the following

inadequate blood flow to the heart

according to current pain theories all of the following are true EXCEPT:
a. nociceptors respond to a variety of noxious stimuli
b. the quality of pain depends upon the type of tissue from which the stimulus originates
c. pain intensity depends on the rate

d. the intensity of pain is greater when the intensity of non-nociceptor stimulation is greater than the intensity of nociceptor stimulation

which of the following transmit the sensation of pain from the periphery to the spinal cord

small unmyelinated A-delta fibers and small unmyelinated C fibers

nociceptors are found in

all tissues except the nucleus pulposus and the inner part of the annulus fibrosus of the spinal discs

the pain transmitted by C fibers generally

is long lasting

the transmission of pain at the spinal cord may be inhibited by

A-beta nerves

which of the following is LEAST likely to cause nociceptor activation

vibration associated with removing a cast

all of the following are true regarding the anterospinothalamic tract EXCEPT:
a. it crosses midline in the spinal cord
b. it synapses with neurons in the hypothalamus and thalamus
c. it is associated with modulation of pain
d. it is associated with transm

c. it is associated with modulation of pain

increased sympathetic nervous system activity may cause all of the following EXCEPT:
a. decreased heart rate
b. increased heart rate
c. increased blood pressure
d. increased sweating

a. decreased heart rate

complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) includes all of the following signs and symptoms EXCEPT:
a. hyperesthesia
b. allodynia
c. edema
d. anesthesia

d. anesthesia

CRPS has been called all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Sudeck's atrophy
b. reflex sympathetic dystrophy
c. post-traumatic stress disorder
d. shoulder-hand syndrome

c. post-traumatic stress disorder

elevated levels of substance P

are associated with increased sensation of pain

naloxone reversed the effects of

endorphins

all of the following are true regarding opiopeptins EXCEPT:
a. opiopeptins are a group of opiate-like neurotransmitters
b. opiopeptins control pain when they bind to opiate receptors in the nervous system
c. opiopeptins bind with opiate binding sites in m

c. opiopeptins bind with opiate binding sites in muscles

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. aspirin
b. ibuprofen
c. acetaminophen
d. naproxen sodium

c. acetaminophen

which tool is most appropriate for quickly estimating a patient's perceived progress or change in severity of symptoms over time

visual analog scale

which tool is most appropriate for obtaining detailed quantifiable info about a patient's pain

semantic differential scale

which tool is most appropriate for localizing the area and nature of a patient's symptoms

body diagram

all of the following types of pharmacological agents are used to control pain EXCEPT:
a. opiates
b. NSAIDs
c. naloxone
d. antidepressants

c. naloxone

physical agents may be used to control pain by all of the following mechanisms EXCEPT:
a. moderating the release of inflammatory mediators
b. increasing opiopeptin levels
c. altering nerve conduction
d. completely blocking nociceptive transmission

d. completely blocking nociceptive transmission

which of the following statements is true?
a. physical agents can be an affective component of the treatment of both acute and chronic pain
b. physical agents should only be used for treating acute pain
c. physical agents always increase the cost of contr

a. physical agents can be an affective component of the treatment of both acute and chronic pain

multidisciplinary pain treatment programs generally focus on

teaching the patient coping skills, increasing physical activity and involving the patient's family

all of the following statements regarding muscle tone are true EXCEPT:
a. physical agent modalities can affect both the neural and biomechanical components of muscle tone
b. muscle tone is described as one's readiness to move or hold a position
c. assessi

c. assessing muscle tone requires that the patient actively resist manual stretch

which of the following best define muscle tone

a muscle's passive resistance to stretch

which term describes a muscle that resists a quicker stretch more than a slower stretch

spasticity

a therapist enters the dining room of the acute rehabilitation unit where her next patient is seated in a wheelchair. the therapist observes the patient from afar and notes that the patient is posturing her left upper extremity with the elbow in flexion,

the patient presents with abnormal muscle tone

which term best describes a paralyzed muscle with no resistance to stretch

flaccid

a therapist is attempting to place a child with cerebral palsy into a wheelchair. when the therapist attempts to position the child's feet onto the footrest by dorsiflexing the child's ankles, her ankle plantar flexors begin to shorten in multiple rhythmi

pt. presents with clonus involving plantar flexors

the pendulum test measures which of the following characteristics of hypertonicity

spasticity

when documenting muscle tone, noting the patient's position is LEAST relevant for which of the following

electromyography (EMG) studies

all of the following are advantages to using EMG for assessing muscle tone EXCEPT:
a. sensitivity to low levels of muscle activity that may not be easily appreciated by palpation
b. large muscle groups can be assessed simultaneously
c. useful for biofeedb

b. large muscle groups can be assessed simultaneously

for a client who has increased tone and pain in the back extensor muscles, which of the following is an appropriate way to assess muscle tone

palpation of the muscle, observing movement

all of the following should occur for assessment of muscle tone EXCEPT:
a. report testing position of the patient
b. begin an assessment of muscle tone with a joint at end range
c. handhold and instrument placement should be consistent
d. include assessme

b. begin an assessment of muscle tone with a joint at end range

under which circumstance does a muscle have the greatest potential to generate force

when a joint is in mid-range and actin and myosin are overlapping

passive elements of muscle that contribute to muscle tone include which of the following

friction between connective tissues as they slide past one another

which of the following is true regarding alpha motor neurons

transmits signals from the central nervous system to muscles

the alpha motor neuron conducts electrochemical signals

at up to 70 to 80 m/sec in humans

spinal input to alpha motor neurons includes

propriospinal pathways

which receptor monitors tension and the force produced by muscle contraction via 1b sensory neurons

golgi tendon organ

which two states are likely to result in increased muscle tone

decreased inhibitory input or increased excitatory input

when alpha motor neurons are unable to transmit electrical impulses to an entire muscle, all of the following conditions exist EXCEPT:
a. cross-bridging
b. paralysis
c. flaccidity
d. denervation

a. cross-bridging

a patient with parkinson's disease is likely to present with which of the following

rigidity

a patient who has just had a stroke is likely to present with which of the following

initial flaccidity followed by spasticity

clinically relevant consequences of decreased muscle tone include

shoulder subluxation

all of the following are likely to cause an increase in muscle tone EXCEPT:
a. quick stretch
b. unexpected noise
c. light touch
d. slow repetitive rocking

d. slow repetitive rocking

outcomes expected from the use of prolonged ice with someone who has hypertonia include

decreased muscle tone

which of the following can cause low muscle tone by mechanisms other than alpha motor neuron damage

cerebral vascular accident

which statement regarding the consequences of hypertonicity is true

hypertonicity that interferes with function is always abnormal

a patient with a complete spinal cord injury is most likely to present with which pattern of muscle tone

hypotonicity followed by hypertonicity