chapter 11, 12, 13, 14, & 15 flashcards A&P 2



prefrontal cortex (anterior association area)

A stimulus traveling toward a synapse appears to open potassium ion channels at the presynaptic end, which in turn promotes fusion of synaptic vesicles to the axonal membrane.


you have lost the sensation, but not the movment, in one of your hands due to a problem with your spinal chord neurons. based upon these symptoms, what type of neuron was most likely affected?

afferent neuron!

the period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus is the___________.

Absolute refractory period.

Axon diameter and degree of myelination determine nerve impulse conduction velocity.


Bipolar neurons are commonly ________.

found in the retina of the eye

When a neurotransmitter like GABA is acting in an inhibitory manner which of the following is likely a result of the GABA acting on the postsynaptic cell?

hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic cell membrane

Loss of function in the enzyme acetylcholine esterase would result in which of the following?

inability to destroy and remove acetylcholine from the synaptic cleft

Which ion channel opens in response to a change in membrane potential and participates in the generation and conduction of action potentials?

Voltage-gated channel

Like all cells, the neurons' internal organization dictates its function. Neurons have relatively many mitochondria, an extensive network of rough endoplasmic reticulum and many clusters of ribosomes. These cellular features indicate all of the following

neurons have stable, relatively unchanging internal environments

Strong stimuli cause the frequency of action potentials generated to increase.


The effect of acetylcholine can be stimulating or inhibiting. Which of the following gives the best explanation for why this is so?

Different postsynaptic cells will have different receptors.

These cells in the CNS have cilia that move in order to circulate cerebrospinal fluid.

ependymal cells

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of neurons?


Which of the following is NOT a function of dendrites?


The term central nervous system refers to the ________.

brain and spinal cord

A cluster of neurons in the peripheral nervous system is called a ________.


Which of the following is an excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating skeletal muscle?


Some nerve fibers of the peripheral nervous system have the ability to regenerate after damage has occurred. Which of the following cells is most responsible for aiding in this regulation?

Schwann cells

If a postsynaptic cell is stimulated to threshold by temporal summation this implies that ________.

a presynaptic neuron is sending frequent EPSP

Which of the following events could cause depolarization?

calcium ions (positive) come into the neuron

A nerve impulse is sent ____________ the cell body?

2 - Quiz
In this diagram, what is A?

neuron that looks like a T

Unipolar neuron

looks like a piece of candy

Bipolar neuron

looks like a normal nerve cell with an axon.

multipolar neuron

which neuron would activate to a muscle?

multipolar neuron

which neuron would be found in the retina of the eye?

bipolar neuron

which neuron is a sensory neuron found in a reflex arc?

Unipolar neuron

which neuron is never myelinated?

bipolar neuron

which neuron is typically involved in the special senses of sight and smell?

Bi polar neuron

in a reflex arc which neuron has its cell body inside the spinal chord?

multipolar neuron

which neuron is common only in dorsal root ganglia of the spinal chord and sensory ganglia of cranial nerves?

Unipolar neuron

which is by far the most common neuron type?

Multipolar neuron

cells that are ciliated so that they can help move cerebral spinal fluid. they are located in the central cavities of the brain and spinal column.

ependymal cells

The lateral sulcus separates which lobes?

temporal from parietal

What is the name of the section of nerve fibers that extend below the conus medullaris?

cauda equina

The adult spinal cord ends between the level L1 and L2 of the vertebral column.


What is the space between the dura mater and vertebrae called (typically contains fat tissue and blood vessels)?

epidural space

What connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland?


An elevated ridge of the cortex is called a ________.


The corpus callosum connects the cerebrum to the cerebellum


The brain stem includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.


What groove separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe?

central sulcus

Cell bodies of sensory neurons are located in ________.

the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord

The ________ includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.


The primary somatosensory cortex is located in the ________.

parietal lobe

Cell bodies of somatic motor neurons are located in the lateral horn of the spinal cord


The arbor vitae refers to ________.

cerebellar white matter

The ________ is the main switch station for memory; if the right and left areas are destroyed, the result is widespread amnesia.


An individual accidentally transected (cut across) the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in ________.


Emotional memory ________.

involves your pounding heart when you hear a rattlesnake

Interneurons receiving input from sensory neurons are located in the ________.

dorsal (posterior) horn

Interoceptors respond to stimuli arising outside the body.


Inborn or intrinsic reflexes are ________.

involuntary, yet may be modified by learned behavior

The second cranial nerve forms a chiasma at the base of the brain for partial crossover of neural fibers.


Which connective tissue is found on the outside of a nerve?


If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, what would be the result in the tissue or region that nerve supplies?

a complete loss of voluntary movement

A major nerve of the lumbar plexus is the ________.


We can touch our finger to our nose while our eyes are closed in part because we can sense the position and movement of our joints as well as the length of stretch in our muscles. These sensations create awareness of our body's positioning. The following


A reflex that causes muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to muscle tension is called a ________.

tendon reflex

What true about cranial nerves III, IV, and VI?

They move the eyeball.

Which receptors respond to stimuli within the body?


A nociceptor senses pain.


A doctor asks her patient to follow the motion of her finger as she moves it up and down, left and right. Which of the following cranial nerves is NOT being tested?

the trochlear nerve (IV)
the oculomotor nerve (III)
the vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
the abducens (VI)

Starting at the spinal cord, the subdivisions of the brachial plexus are (in order) ________.

roots, trunks, divisions, and cords

Dorsal and ventral rami are similar in that they both contain sensory and motor fibers.


After axonal injury, regeneration in peripheral nerves is guided by ________.

Schwann cells

The odd tingling sensation that you experiences when you hit the funny bone is due to trauma to the ________ nerve.


Regeneration within the CNS ________.

is prevented due to growth-inhibiting proteins of oligodendrocytes

Irritation of the phrenic nerve may cause diaphragm spasms called hiccups.


Problems in balance may follow trauma to which nerve?


Which of the following is the correct simple spinal reflex arc?

receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector

How many cranial nerves innervate muscles around the eye?


If someone spills very hot coffee (200�F) on their skin, they will likely perceive much pain. Which of the following receptor types is causing this sensation?


Which of these effectors is NOT directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?

skeletal muscle

Somatic and visceral reflex arcs are similar, but visceral reflex arcs lack ganglionic neurons in the effector pathway.


Which receptor type is classified by stimulus location?


Most disorders of the autonomic nervous system reflect abnormalities of smooth muscle control.


Where would you NOT find autonomic ganglia?

within spinal cord

The sympathetic nervous system has what effect on pupil size?


What hormone is secreted by postganglionic sympathetic fibers to sweat glands?


Which of the following statements is FALSE?

Sympathetic origin is craniosacral; parasympathetic is thoracolumbar

Some large arteries that are proximal to the heart are sensitive to the stretch of the blood vessels. This stretch indicates the blood's pressure. Which of the following pairs of classifications below best fit the receptor type that is being described abo

mechanoreceptors that are also interoceptors

The sympathetic pathway has ________ preganglionic fibers and ________ postganglionic fibers.

short; long

Which of the following is a function of the parasympathetic division?

contracts smooth muscle of the bladder wall and relaxes urethral sphincter

Which of the following is mismatched?

promotes urination; sympathetic

The sympathetic nervous system has most of its ganglia in the sympathetic trunk, whereas; the parasympathetic nervous system has its ganglia located closer to the organ it innervates.


Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve ________.

X (vagus)

Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.


The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of ________.

sympathetic stimulation

The autonomic nervous system may cause activation or inhibition, depending on the division that is active and the target that is affected.


The sympathetic nervous system has most of its ganglia in the sympathetic trunk, whereas; the parasympathetic nervous system has its ganglia located closer to the organ it innervates


The preganglionic axons of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons are ________.

cholinergic; they release acetylcholine

The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is via the ________.

vagus (X) nerves

Which of the following is mismatched?

parasympathetic postganglionic fibers; release NE

There are three layers of neurons in the retina. The axons of which of these neuron layers form the optic nerves?

ganglion cells

Paralysis of which eye muscle would prevent the right eye from looking to the left?

Medial rectus

The anterior chamber of the eye is filled with vitreous humor.


Dancers will use a technique called "spotting" when they perform spins of the body. By holding their head and eyes on a fixed point in front of them as their body spins they reduce the amount of head spinning and this prevents dizziness. Which of the foll

Reducing the inertia of head spin will reduce the flow of endolymph that deflects the hair cells of the crista ampullaris.

Sour taste receptors are stimulated by sodium ions of acidic food substances.


Motion sickness seems to ________.

result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs

The optic disc forms a blind spot where the optic nerve leaves the eyeball.


A patient has a loss of hearing in only one ear. Which of the following is likely to be a result?

The patient will not be able to localize the origin of sounds.

Tom is a 45-year-old male that has lost his ability to hear high-frequency sounds. The most likely explanation for this would be ________.

damage to the hair cells near the oval window in the cochlear duct

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of olfactory receptor cells?

They are unipolar neurons.

Which of the following best describes the function of the iris?

controls amount of light entering eye

The elasticity of the lens decreases with age. This leads to which of the following?

less accommodation of the lenses and difficulty focusing on nearby objects

Which of the following structures is NOT part of the external ear?

pharyngotympanic tube

In a person who is color-blind, which of the following would you most expect to see?

absence of green or red cones in their foveae

Sound is generally perceived in the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex.


The ability to clearly see objects at a distance but not close up is properly called ________.


Receptors for hearing are located in the ________.


The ________ of the retina detect color and function only in ________ light.

cones, bright

What is the primary function of cerumen?

cleans and lubricates the external auditory canal

Humans can see several thousand shades of color but have cone photoreceptors that are sensitive to only three (perhaps four) wavelengths of light. What is the best explanation for why we see so many colors?

Color perception is achieved by activation of various combinations between the three cone types.

Which of the following taste sensations is incorrectly matched to the chemicals that produce it?

umami-triglycerides and fatty acids

The photoreceptors in the eye are located on the inward facing side (closest to the vitreous humor) of the retina.