sectional anatomy & imaging strategies

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below the thoracic cavity starting at the diaphragm begins what cavity

abdominopelvic cavity

what does the upper portion of the abdominopelvic cavity contain

1. stomach
2. spleen
3. liver
4. gallbladder
5. pancreas
6. kidneys
7. adrenal glands
8. and parts of the small & large intestine

what does the lower section of the pelvic cavity contain

1. urinary bladder
2. parts of the small and large intestine
3. reproductive organs

the two methods of subdividing the abdominopelvic cavity

1. divides the cavity into 9 regions
2. divides the cavity into 4 quadrants

what is the reason that we tell the patient to lift their arms above the head during abdominal or chest study

eliminates beam hardening artifacts

what does the liver do

produces bile salts, heparin, and plasma proteins. it also converts nutrients, detoxifies substances, and stores glycogen, minerals and vitamins

what extends from the underside of the underside of the diaphragm to the superior surface of the liver

the falciform ligament

what is the falciform ligament formed by

a fold in the parietal peritoneum

what is separated by the falciform ligament formed by the fold in the parietal peritoneum

right and left lobes of the liver

what extends from the fold in the parietal peritoneum to the umbilicus

remnants of the umbilical vein, the ligamentum teres

what provides a passageway for the vessels to enter and leave the liver

porta hepatis

where does the portal triad pass through and what does it consist of

the portal triad passes through the porta hepatis and it consists of the 1. portal vein 2. common hepatic duct 3. hepatic artery

what is the gallbladders function

to store and concentrate bile until needed by the small intestine by ejecting its contents into the cystic duct

how does a hemangioma fill in with contrast

the dark lesion will fill starting with the periphery and centrally filling inward

the spleen occupies the

left upper quadrant

didn't put paragraphs 9,10 on pg 3

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what extends from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta that divides into 3 arterial branches

celiac trunk

what are the 3 branches of the celiac artery

1. left gastric artery
2. hepatic artery
3. splenic artery

what are the spleen's 3 major functions

1. produces lymphocytes for immune system
2. destroys bacteria and damaged blood cell components
3. acts as a reservoir to store blood

what is a enlarged spleen called

splenomegaly

is splenomegaly a disease

not really but it is the result of an underlying disorder

an adrenal lesion with a Hounsfield unit value of _________ is considered an adenoma

< 15

what is an adenoma

is a benign tumor that originates from the outer layer of the gland known as the cortex. there are two types of adenoma functioning and non-functioning

what is the difference between a functioning and non-functioning adenoma

if it produces hormones its a functioning adenoma if it does not produce hormones then its a non-functioning adenoma

the adrenal glands are a part of what system

endocrine system

Where are the adrenal glands located?

on top of each kidney. The right is just posterior to the IVC while the left is posterior to the pancreas and vessels of the spleen

how do the adrenal glands appear and do they vary

they may vary depending on orientation and patient body habitus, but generally have an (arrowhead appearance)

what are the adrenal glands also known as

suprarenal glands

how would you view the adrenal glands with what kind of cuts

thin cuts of no more than 3 millimeters

skipped paragraph 17 on pg 4. talks about echo

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the kidneys are located between what vertebras

T12 to L3

the renal sinus is a

cavity within the kidney

the renal hilum allows

passage of vessels, nerves, and the proximal portion of the ureters into the renal sinus

the renal pelvis is in the renal __________.

sinus

skipped paragraph 21 pg 4

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the hilum within the kidney provides passage for

blood vessels and the ureters

during the early stages of a dynamic contrast injection the spleen may exhibit what

a somewhat irregular, blotchy looking appearance

skipped paragraph 24 pg 5

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where is the pancreas located

midline and oriented in a horizontal, or transverse plane it is anterior to the first lumbar vertebrae. the tail lies anterior to the left kidney and posterior to the stomach

is the pancreas in the endocrine or the exocrine system

its in both

the main pancreatic duct that connects the pancreas to the common bile duct is also called what

duct of wirsung

skipped the common bile duct and its ampulla of vater and sphincter of oddi

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skipped paragraph 29 and 30 on pg 5

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what cavity begins starting just below the diaphragm

the abdominal cavity

what does the abdominal cavity contain

1. stomach
2. spleen
3. liver
4. gallbladder
5. pancreas
6. kidney
7. adrenal glands
8. parts of small and large intestine

what does the pelvic cavity contain

1. bladder
2. female and internal male reproductive organs
3. portions of the small and large intestine

where is the bladder located in a male

anterior to the rectum

where is the bladder located in a female

inferior to the uterus and anterior to the vagina

skipped paragraph 33 on pg 6

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where is the prostate gland located

posterior to the symphysis pubis

skipped paragraph 35 on pg 6

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what is the main artery of the body

aorta

what does the aorta carry

carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body

where does the aorta bifurcate into the right and left __________.

1. bifurcates at L4
2. right and left common iliac arteries

the celiac artery is

a short thick trunk extending from the anterior aorta just inferior to the level of the diaphragm

what is the easiest way to to visualize the celiac trunk

a lateral projection

the celiac trunk divides into ______ ___________

3 arteries

what are the 3 arteries the celiac trunk divides into

1. left gastric artery
2. hepatic artery
3. splenic artery

what does the left gastric artery supply blood to

portions of the stomach

where does the superior mesenteric artery extend from

the abdominal aorta inferior to the celiac trunk

What does the superior mesenteric artery supply?

provides oxygenated blood to almost the entire small intestine and to the ascending colon and part of the transverse colon

what is located extending from the aorta between the superior mesenteric artery and the bifurcation of the aorta

the inferior mesenteric artery

What does the inferior mesenteric artery supply?

left half of the transverse colon the sigmoid colon and the rectum

venous blood traveling from the digestive organs has to travel through the ________ before returning to the heart

Liver

what is venous blood traveling from the digestive organs has to travel through the liver before returning to the heart called

hepatic portal circulation

skipped the last of paragraph 40 on pg 7

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