Gov Chapter 3 Quiz

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popular sovereignty

when all political power resides with the people; the people are the only source of any an all governmental power. "Consent of the governed

limited government

principle that holds that no government is all powerful; the government may only do those things that the power have given it the power to do; individuals have the rights that the government cannot take away

separation of powers

the three basic powers of government are distributed among three distinct and independent branches of the government

checks and balances

system of overlapping the powers of legislative, executive, and judicial branches to permit each branch to check the actions of the others

judicial review

the power of a court to determine the constitutionally of a governmental action

federalism

a system of government in which a written constitution divides power between a central (national) government and several regional governments

federalism

proposed at the state level, ratified at the state level"
"neither level can amend the Constitution without approval from the other"
*which of the basic principles of government do these statements represent?

preamble

states the purpose of the Constitution; an introduction

article

seven numbered sections that the Constitution is divided into

amendment

a formal change written into the Constitution

repeal

to recall or take back

commander in chief

a head of state or officer in supreme command of a country's armed forces

the president

what is the commander in chief equivalent to in the US?

cabinet

presidential advisory body, traditionally made up of the heads of the executive departments and other officers

executive agreement

a pact made by the president directly with the head of a foreign state; does not need approval of the Senate

electoral college

the body that makes up the formal selection of the nation's President, from what the Framers intended into a "rubber stamp" for each state's popular vote in presidential elections

Preamble, 7 Articles, 27 Amendments

how is the Constitution organized?

Legislative Branch

Article 1

Executive Branch

Article 2

Judicial Branch

Article 3

The 50 States/Relation of States

Article 4

Amendment Process

Article 5

Supremacy Clause/Religion Test

Article 6

Ratification Process

Article 7

a PA delegate who put all the ideas of the Constitution into a final draft

who was Governeur Morris

supremacy clause

the Constitution is the supreme law of the land

article 6 section 2

where is the supremacy clause located

full faith and credit clause

Constitution's requirement that each State accept the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State

article 4 section 1

where is the full faith and credit clause located

commerce clause

gives Congress the right to regulate interstate commerce; used in collaboration with the Elastic Clause to build interstate highways and dams

it gives Congress power beyond what is stated; gives them the power to expand the Constitution

why is the commerce clause sometimes considered an informal amendment?

marbury vs madison

court cause that established judicial review and gave the Supreme Court equal power compared to the other branches

Marbury told the Supreme Court to order Jefferson to give him his commission; Marbury did not get his commission

what happened in the Marbury vs Madison case

2/3 of all houses --> 3/4 of all state legislatures

what is the most common path of amending the constitution?

21st Amendment

which is the only amendment that was passed differently than the other 26?

2/3 of all houses in Congress --> conventions in 3/4 of the states

how was the 21st amendment passed

33

how many amendments have made it to the ratification phase

03-Feb

what is the fraction of votes/states needed for an amendment to be proposed

04-Mar

what is the fraction of votes/states needed for an amendment to be ratified

national conventions called by congress when requested by 2/3 of state legislatures

which method of proposing an amendment to the Constitution has never been used?

John Marshall

who was the chief justice during the "Marbury v Madison" case

bill of rights

the first ten amendments to the Constitution setting out the great constitutional guarantees of freedom of belief and expression, security of the person, and of fair and equal treatment before the law

treaty

a formal agreement between two or more sovereign states; needs to be approved by the Senate

they propose laws to clear up the broadness of the language used by the Framers; vague parts of the Constitution are clarified

how does Congress clarify the Constitution

22 and 25

which two amendments were informal, but became formal

the federal government proposes the amendment and the state government ratifies it

how is the formal amendment process an example of federalism

they expand upon the original skeleton of the Constitution

what is the impact of informal amendments

judicial review

what is an example of an informal amendment

he was against them

what was George Washington's opinion on political parties?

no

does the Constitution ever mention political parties?

they feared the divisive effect of them on government

why were many of the Framers against political parties?

- need a majority of both houses to approve a proposed amendment
- amendments must appear in 2 newspapers of every county
- majority of both houses, after next election, approve proposed amendment
- majority of voters in PA approve the proposed amendment

what is the amendment process of the PA constitution

Mike Pompeo, Steve Mnuchin, Jim Mattis, Jeff Sessions

who are the four key members of Cabinet

mike pompeo

who is the current secretary of state

steve mnuchin

who is the current secretary of the treasury

jim mattis

who is the current secretary of defense

jeff sessions

who is the current attorney general?

the federalist papers

a series of 85 essays defending the Constitution and its ideas and answering the objections of the Antifederalists

alexander hamilton, john jay, and james madison

who wrote the federalist papers?

because the Framers used broad language to leave room for interpretation

why have there only been 17 amendments since the Bill of Rights?

basic legislation, executive action, court decisions, political party practices, and customs and usage (traditions)

main categories of informal changes

popular sovereignty, limited government, separation of powers, checks and balances, judicial review, and federalism

what are the six basic principles of government?

elastic clause

grants Congress power to pass laws necessary and proper

article 1 section 8

where is the elastic clause located?

executive agreements do not need to be approved by the Senate

what is the main difference between an executive agreement and a treaty

it excludes the citizens

why do some people criticize the most common amendment path?

state representation in Senate

what is the one limit to amending? (one thing Congress can't amend)

compromise where every 5 slaves counted as 3 in the state's population for taxation and representation (60% of a person); also stated that Congress could not interfere with the slave trade for at least 20 years after the Constitution went into effect

3/5 Compromise

- resulted from the disagreements with the Virginia and New Jersey plans
- Congress should consist of two houses
- a state's representation in the house would be population based; each state will have two representatives in the Senate

the great compromise

the connecticut compromise

what is another name for the Great Compromise

Roger Sherman

who proposed the Great Compromise

- 13, 14, 15= civil war amendments; deals with the rights of the newly freed slaves
- 15, 17, 19, 23, 24, 26= expansion of voting rights
- 4, 5, 6, 8= rights of the accused
- 1-8= protection from government
- 18, 21= prohibition
- 12, 22, 25= presidency

amendments with common themes

they allowed the Constitution to be passed; without the promise of a Bill of Rights, New York and Virginia wouldn't have agreed to the new Constitution

what is the significance of the Bill of Rights

elastic clause and commerce clause

examples of informal changes with basic legislation

president can send troops, executive agreement, executive order

examples of informal changes with executive action

Judicial Review (Marbury v. Madison), Brown vs. Board of Education

examples of informal changes with court decisions

nomination of candidates, congress itself (divided into parties), electoral college

examples of informal changes with party practices

cabinet, state of the union, senatorial courtesy

examples of informal changes with customs & usage

senatorial courtesy

custom that the Senate will not approve a presidential appointment opposed by a majority party senator from the State in which the appointee would serve

state of the union address

the president shall from time and time give to Congress information of the State of the Union and recommend to their Consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient

article 2 section 3

where is the state of the union address located in the Constitution