scientific law

a statement that summarizes a pattern found in nature


a representation of an object or event

scientific notation

a way of expressing a value as the product of a number between 1 and 10 and a power of 10

scientific theory

a well-tested explanation for a set of observations or experimental results

controlled variable

an experiment in which only one variable, the manipulated variable, is deliberately changed at a time

responding variable

the variable that changes on response to the manipulated variable

manipulated variable

the variable that causes a change in another


a proposed answer to a question or an educated guess


information that you obtain through your senses

scientific method

an organized plan for gathering, organizing, and communicating information


the study of the origin and behavior of living things


the study of the universe beyond Earth


the study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth


the study of matter and energy and the interactions between the two through forces and motions


the study of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter


the use of knowledge to solve practical problems


system of knowledge and the methods you use to find that knowledge

conversion factor

a ratio of equivalent measurements used to convert a quantity from one unit to another

line graphs

used to show the changes that occur in related variables

bar graphs

bars used to compare a set of measurements of amounts

circle graphs

a circle divided into sections or portions that shows how a part of something relates to the whole


the ratio of an objects mass to its volume (density=mass/volume)


the ratio of the vertical change to the corresponding horizontal change (slope=rise/run)

inverse proportion

a relationship in which the product of two variables is a constant

direct proportion

a relationship in which the ratio of two variables is constant


the closeness of a measurement to the actual value of what is being measured

significant figures

all the digits that are known in a measurement plus that last ones that are estimated


the gauge of how exact a measurement is


the amount of space taken up by an object (measured by m3)


the quantity of matter in an object (measured by kilograms {kg)


the straight-line distance between two points (measured by meters {m)