respiratory funds

...low level of oxygen in the blood

Hypoxemia

...decrease amount of oxygen in the tissue

Hypoxia

Breathing exercises are interventions that

...strengthen respiration, abdominal muscle and promote gas exchange by inflating the lungs.

Adult respiratory rate is ...

12-20

cigarette smoking, active and passive is a major contributor to lung...disease and respiratory disorder due to

depress ciliary movement

performed posteriorly as client pulls shoulders forward (primary purpose is to loosen thick secretions)

Percussion

(formerly rales) non-continuous occur when air moves through airways containing fluid

crackles

loud, bubbly, heard during inspiration and expiration, fluid in larger airways, increased pulmonary congestion

coarse

(formerly rhonchi) continuous, musical, snoring, low pitched wheeze, inspiration or expiration or both. can sometimes be cleared with coughing.

gurgles

high pitched squeaky sounds on expiration and sometimes inspiration
originate in smaller bronchi

wheezes

dry, grating (no lubrication) sound caused by inflammation of pleural surfaces

pleural friction rub

Incentive Spirometry is done postoperatively to prevent...atelectasis - collapse of all part of the lungs

atelectasis - collapse of all part of the lungs

is essential for life the body has no reserve

oxygen

signs and symptoms - increased, rapid pulse; rapid, shallow

hypoxemia

Nursing care of the patient receiving oxygen needs -----...because oxygen is considered a ----

md order, medication

oxygen order covers the amount (1 LPM) and method of administration such as

mask or nasal cannula

no smoking because oxygen support

combustion

Nasal cannula delivers

2-6 l

delivers oxygen concentration to within 1%

Venturi Mask

Venturi Mask is often used for...

copdiers

1. used for children to deliver oxygen with humidification
2. seldom used for adults due to improved delivery means

Oxygen Tent

1. O2 and humidification are...delivered directly to the tracheostomy
2. water condenses in the tubing...and need to be removed frequently

Tracheostomy with T-piece

inability of the lungs to maintain normal arterial blood gas levels when the individual is breathing 21% oxygen at sea level.

Respiratory insufficiency

excessively high rate of alveolar ventilation.

Hyperpnea

- low rate of alveolar ventilation, that is, under respiration.

Hypopnea

(hypocapnia) - depressed blood carbon dioxide level.

Hypocabia

the most accurate measure of effectiveness of oxygen therapy

arterial blood gases

- absence of carbon dioxide in the blood (this state is incompatible with life).

Acapnia

Chronic Lung Diseases liter flow is ----- LPM no more than --- liter per min

1-2 , 3

Increased O2 may raise blood O2 level...stimulation to breath is lost the result is

respiratory depression

COPDer retains carbon dioxide, has adapted to high level blood carbon dioxide and rely on low blood oxygen to

stimulate breathing

Medications Used to Improve Respiratory Functioning:
- relaxes muscles that line bronchi and bronchioles

epinephrine

Medications Used to Improve Respiratory Functioning:
(isuprel) - bronchodilator

isoproterenol

Medications Used to Improve Respiratory Functioning:
(alupent) - bronchodilator

metaproterenol

Medications Used to Improve Respiratory Functioning:
(aminophylline) - bronchodilator

theophylline

Medications Used to Improve Respiratory Functioning:
(ACTH, prednisone, dexamethasone) - reduces inflammation

corticosteroids

Medications Used to Improve Respiratory Functioning:
- blocks histamine and relieves congestion of an allergic origin

antihistamines

Medications Used to Improve Respiratory Functioning:
(intal) - prevents the release of histamines, serotonin, prostaglandin by the mast cell in an antigen antibody reaction in asthma

cromolyn sodium

- an artificial opening into the trachea, usually made between the second and third tracheal ring.

Tracheostomy

accumulate within the lower respiratory passages
must use sterile technique
remove inserting a suction catheter
the cough that is stimulated may require wearing a mask, gown, and goggles

removing secretions

Tracheostomy psychological implications

anxiety, loss of communication, social isolation, body image disturbance

- use for pt in state of ventilatory

Mechanical Ventilation

1. provides decreased pressure all around the chest allowing the chest to expand and air to flow into the lungs
2. seldom used today because they are so cumbersome

negative pressure ventilator (iron lung)

...adds moisture to air and provide a liquified secretion

humidification

- production of large droplets

atomization

...production of mist or fog

nebulization

- suspending droplets in a gas

aerosolization

Best time for postural drainage is before ----

meals and bedtime

Avoid postural drainage after meals as it can promote

vomiting and make patient tired

- rhythmic gentle blows with cupped hands (percussion).

percussion and vibration

Vibration is using circular movements with open hands to produce

wavelike tremors (loosens secretions)

Sputum Mucus collection come from ---

lungs, bronchi, trach

Sputum specimens collected for:

Culture and sensitivity to identify MOs and sensitivities

Sputum specimen collected in --- on awakening so client can cough up secretions that have accumulated during night.

morning

Normal values of pH

7.35 - 7.45

when Interpreting ABG's low ph is considered

acidosis

Normal Values PaCO2

35-45 mmHg

when Interpreting ABG's high ph is considered

alkalosis

Normal value of HCO3

22-26 mEq/L