Senile Brain disease
progressive disorder with increasing mental and physical deterioration which vary from person to person
Senile Brain Disease Symptoms
restlessness, agitation, and confusion, can be symptoms that appear at one time or another dissapear and the reappear
Senile Brain Disease Prognosis
patinets will become more helpless deteriorted, incontenent, and bedridden
On average how does death occur for patients with senile brain disorders?
pneumonia, infection from decubital ulcers, bed sores, or other terminal diseases
At one time senile brain disorders accounted for what percent of admissions to psychiatric hospitals?
Which sex is more commonly affected by senile brain disorders and what is the average age of onset?
What occurs at the onset of senile brain disease?
gradual impairment of efficiency, slowing down of psychomotor functions, and an increase in errors of judgment, which is combined with deterioration of personal habits
What happens to the brain of senile brain diseased patients?
they show shrinkage of cerebral convolutions and white matter, changes to the cerebral cortex, shrinkage and atrophy of neurons
causes of senile brain diseas
1) genetics (appears to be hereditary)
2) physical changes of the organism
3) psychological stress and conflict
What is Cerebral Arteriosclorosis
thickening of the walls of the arteries that restricts oxygen flow and prevents the diffusion of food which results in the destruction of surronding brain tissue
Wat are first symptoms of cerebral arteriosclrosis?
dizziness, headache, vague somatic symptoms, and prolonged periods of physical and mental let down
How quick is the onset?
can be sudden or gradual
What can decline with cerebral arteriosclrosis
intellect and efficiency of memories
what is common among patients with cerebral arteriosclrosis
ideas of mistreatment or persecution and explosive laughter or weeping
types of alcohol intoxications
pathological intoxications, delerium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic deterioration, korsakoffs
an acute condition that comes on suddenly with relatively little alcohol consumption
what are common behavioral traits of someone that is experiencing pathological intoxication
violence, confusion, agitation, and excitment along with rage anger and hostility
what are the symptoms of pathological intoxication
disorientation, hallucinations, delusions, combined with exaggerated emotional responses
The drinker ( who is experiencing pathological intoxication) can sometimes be plunged into...
depression and can attempt suicide
how long can these episodes of pathological intoxication last?
a few hours to a day or two (is usually followed with long period of sleep)
What happens after the person comes back from their episode of pathological intoxication?
they will usually not remember what happend
what are the known mechanisms of pathological intoxication?
not exactly known but it can be assumed that the person is just unusually sensitive to alcohol (has a VERY low tolerance)
what makes pathological intoxication hard to study?
its rare and does not last for very long
acute brain disorder that is marked by alcoholic episodes including deleriums and hallucinations
After what age does it become more common for delirium tremens occur (and why)?
after 30 because it takes a prolonged alcohol abuse for this condition to develop
when and who described delirium tremens?
1813 Thomas Sutton
what are the signs of onset for delirium tremens?
lack of appetite, irritibility, increasing restlessness, fitful sleeping with disturbed dreams, and fear/apprehension
What commonly happens to the body of those experiencing delirium tremens
body temperature rises and they are flushed
People experiencing delirium tremens will typically experience tremors of the....
hands, tongue, and facial muscles
what are other symptoms associated with delirium tremens?
physical weakness, unsteady gait, reflexes that are overactive, dehydration, convulsions
how was the mortality rate for delirium tremens?
people used to die from concurrent physical disabilities but the mortality rate has been reduced now
during the excited phase of delirium tremens psychological symptoms include:
confusion, disorientation, clouded consciousness, anxiety and intense fearfulness
what kind of disorientations and hallucinations are common with delirium tremens?
disorientation: time and place
hallucinations: visual and tactile (his room may be alive with rats or bugs) types
what is the average duration of an episode of delirium tremens and how long is the average hospital stay?
episode duration: 3 days
hospital stay: at least 5 days
what is the nature of delirium tremens?
appears to be a withdrawl system because it usually happens after a large instance of indulgence and then sudden removal of alcohol
What kind of disturbances occur in the bodies of those affected with delirium tremens?
metabolism disturbances involving carbohydrates, protein, water balance, and a vitamin defiecinecy especially B
what does the vitamin deficiency in delirium tremens cause?
dysfunction of the nervous system
what is alcohol halucinosis
auditory type hallucinations (which are often accusing insulting and derogatory)
what does alcohol halucinosis often look like
what is an unusual feature of alcohl hallucinosis
person is often well orientated and shows few signs of deterioration
How does alcohol hallucinosis occur
not really sure but one guess is that the alcohol triggers schitzophrenic tendencies
how long does the acute form last and how long does the chronic form last
acute: a few days to several weeks
chronic: anything past several weeks
what make alcoholic hallucinosis popular?
Mary Chase's play Harvey
what is alcoholic deterioration?
alteration of the brain cells that cause patients to show memory impairment, attention deficiets loss of judgement and emotional instability
What causes the deterioration of the brain cells?
impairment of the nerve cells of the cerebral cortex that is the result of nutritional deficency ranging from mild symptoms for some to serious states of dementia for other
earliest symptoms of alcoholic deterioration
person will be more likely to act out their more primitive impulses and inner control weakens and they result to more infantile and narcissistic patterns to satisfy their needs
how do the symptoms for alcoholic deterioration show up?
gradually physical and psychological symptoms appear
What are the physical symptoms of alcoholic deterioration?
tremors, muscular weakness, problems with kidneys stomach and liver, ironed/flat facial expressions
What population of drinkers are most effected by alcoholic deterioration?
those who drink heavily for years but do not go in binges
what else occurs concurrently with alcoholic deterioration?
various degrees of brain atrophy, trauma, and avitimenosis
What is Korsakoffs
an alcohol intoxication that can also be from a vitamiin deficiency that causes degeneration of cells in the cerebrum and the peripheral nerves
When and who described Korsakoffs
1887 by Sergei Korsakoff
What characterizes Korsakoffs?
disorientation, memory impairment, and falsification of memory
What is an organic symptom that occurs with Korsakoffs
What is associated with Korsakoffs?
severe alcoholism and a vitamin deficiency
What does Korsakoffs resemble?
delirium tremens but it will not clear up, the patient will be unable to recognize friends and serious memory deficiets will occur
Physical symptoms of Korsakoffs
polyneuritis/inflammation of the nerve trunks
anesthesi of various areas of the skin
wrist drop that makes the patient unable to raise their hand
psychological symptoms of Korsakoffs
How can Korsakoffs be misleading?
a superficial conversation would make someone think that the patient is okay (full on questioning will lead to a clear picture of impairment)
What would a patient with Korsakoffs do if needing to recall during a conversation
How is the prognosis of Korsakoffs?
poor because the 6777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777