Ab Psych Final Note test

Senile Brain disease

progressive disorder with increasing mental and physical deterioration which vary from person to person

Senile Brain Disease Symptoms

restlessness, agitation, and confusion, can be symptoms that appear at one time or another dissapear and the reappear

Senile Brain Disease Prognosis

patinets will become more helpless deteriorted, incontenent, and bedridden

On average how does death occur for patients with senile brain disorders?

pneumonia, infection from decubital ulcers, bed sores, or other terminal diseases

At one time senile brain disorders accounted for what percent of admissions to psychiatric hospitals?


Which sex is more commonly affected by senile brain disorders and what is the average age of onset?

women, 60s-90s

What occurs at the onset of senile brain disease?

gradual impairment of efficiency, slowing down of psychomotor functions, and an increase in errors of judgment, which is combined with deterioration of personal habits

What happens to the brain of senile brain diseased patients?

they show shrinkage of cerebral convolutions and white matter, changes to the cerebral cortex, shrinkage and atrophy of neurons

causes of senile brain diseas

1) genetics (appears to be hereditary)
2) physical changes of the organism
3) psychological stress and conflict

What is Cerebral Arteriosclorosis

thickening of the walls of the arteries that restricts oxygen flow and prevents the diffusion of food which results in the destruction of surronding brain tissue

Wat are first symptoms of cerebral arteriosclrosis?

dizziness, headache, vague somatic symptoms, and prolonged periods of physical and mental let down

How quick is the onset?

can be sudden or gradual

What can decline with cerebral arteriosclrosis

intellect and efficiency of memories

what is common among patients with cerebral arteriosclrosis

ideas of mistreatment or persecution and explosive laughter or weeping

types of alcohol intoxications

pathological intoxications, delerium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic deterioration, korsakoffs

pathological intoxication

an acute condition that comes on suddenly with relatively little alcohol consumption

what are common behavioral traits of someone that is experiencing pathological intoxication

violence, confusion, agitation, and excitment along with rage anger and hostility

what are the symptoms of pathological intoxication

disorientation, hallucinations, delusions, combined with exaggerated emotional responses

The drinker ( who is experiencing pathological intoxication) can sometimes be plunged into...

depression and can attempt suicide

how long can these episodes of pathological intoxication last?

a few hours to a day or two (is usually followed with long period of sleep)

What happens after the person comes back from their episode of pathological intoxication?

they will usually not remember what happend

what are the known mechanisms of pathological intoxication?

not exactly known but it can be assumed that the person is just unusually sensitive to alcohol (has a VERY low tolerance)

what makes pathological intoxication hard to study?

its rare and does not last for very long

Delirium Tremens

acute brain disorder that is marked by alcoholic episodes including deleriums and hallucinations

After what age does it become more common for delirium tremens occur (and why)?

after 30 because it takes a prolonged alcohol abuse for this condition to develop

when and who described delirium tremens?

1813 Thomas Sutton

what are the signs of onset for delirium tremens?

lack of appetite, irritibility, increasing restlessness, fitful sleeping with disturbed dreams, and fear/apprehension

What commonly happens to the body of those experiencing delirium tremens

body temperature rises and they are flushed

People experiencing delirium tremens will typically experience tremors of the....

hands, tongue, and facial muscles

what are other symptoms associated with delirium tremens?

physical weakness, unsteady gait, reflexes that are overactive, dehydration, convulsions

how was the mortality rate for delirium tremens?

people used to die from concurrent physical disabilities but the mortality rate has been reduced now

during the excited phase of delirium tremens psychological symptoms include:

confusion, disorientation, clouded consciousness, anxiety and intense fearfulness

what kind of disorientations and hallucinations are common with delirium tremens?

disorientation: time and place
hallucinations: visual and tactile (his room may be alive with rats or bugs) types

what is the average duration of an episode of delirium tremens and how long is the average hospital stay?

episode duration: 3 days
hospital stay: at least 5 days

what is the nature of delirium tremens?

appears to be a withdrawl system because it usually happens after a large instance of indulgence and then sudden removal of alcohol

What kind of disturbances occur in the bodies of those affected with delirium tremens?

metabolism disturbances involving carbohydrates, protein, water balance, and a vitamin defiecinecy especially B

what does the vitamin deficiency in delirium tremens cause?

dysfunction of the nervous system

what is alcohol halucinosis

auditory type hallucinations (which are often accusing insulting and derogatory)

what does alcohol halucinosis often look like

paranoid schitzophrenia

what is an unusual feature of alcohl hallucinosis

person is often well orientated and shows few signs of deterioration

How does alcohol hallucinosis occur

not really sure but one guess is that the alcohol triggers schitzophrenic tendencies

how long does the acute form last and how long does the chronic form last

acute: a few days to several weeks
chronic: anything past several weeks

what make alcoholic hallucinosis popular?

Mary Chase's play Harvey

what is alcoholic deterioration?

alteration of the brain cells that cause patients to show memory impairment, attention deficiets loss of judgement and emotional instability

What causes the deterioration of the brain cells?

impairment of the nerve cells of the cerebral cortex that is the result of nutritional deficency ranging from mild symptoms for some to serious states of dementia for other

earliest symptoms of alcoholic deterioration

person will be more likely to act out their more primitive impulses and inner control weakens and they result to more infantile and narcissistic patterns to satisfy their needs

how do the symptoms for alcoholic deterioration show up?

gradually physical and psychological symptoms appear

What are the physical symptoms of alcoholic deterioration?

tremors, muscular weakness, problems with kidneys stomach and liver, ironed/flat facial expressions

What population of drinkers are most effected by alcoholic deterioration?

those who drink heavily for years but do not go in binges

what else occurs concurrently with alcoholic deterioration?

various degrees of brain atrophy, trauma, and avitimenosis

What is Korsakoffs

an alcohol intoxication that can also be from a vitamiin deficiency that causes degeneration of cells in the cerebrum and the peripheral nerves

When and who described Korsakoffs

1887 by Sergei Korsakoff

What characterizes Korsakoffs?

disorientation, memory impairment, and falsification of memory

What is an organic symptom that occurs with Korsakoffs

multiple neuritis

What is associated with Korsakoffs?

severe alcoholism and a vitamin deficiency

What does Korsakoffs resemble?

delirium tremens but it will not clear up, the patient will be unable to recognize friends and serious memory deficiets will occur

Physical symptoms of Korsakoffs

polyneuritis/inflammation of the nerve trunks
anesthesi of various areas of the skin
wrist drop that makes the patient unable to raise their hand

psychological symptoms of Korsakoffs

memory disturbances
emotional instability

How can Korsakoffs be misleading?

a superficial conversation would make someone think that the patient is okay (full on questioning will lead to a clear picture of impairment)

What would a patient with Korsakoffs do if needing to recall during a conversation


How is the prognosis of Korsakoffs?

poor because the 6777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777