Sport Mgmt Exam 2

Community sport

Organized physical activity that is based in community, school, and local sport organizations.
community sport is conceptualized as organized physical activity that is based in community, school, and local sport organizations.
the emphasis in community sp

multi-sport organization

(MSO)� Composed of, involving, or accommodating several sports.
The goal of the MSOC is to facilitate the growth of the current number of national organizations (34) that promote multi-sport participation and provide more opportunities for international,

national regulatory association

A national sport governing body that makes eligibility and playing rules and sponsors competition according to its rules.

professional human resource management model

A model that describes scientific methods for staffing , training, developing, and managing human resources. Although well suited for paid employees, it does not often fit for volunteers.
HRM procedures and guidelines for worker (paid or volunteer) recrui

quality of life

The degree of well-being felt by an individual or a group of people.
physical benefits of sport participation include increased cardiovascular health, decreased stress, and increased functioning of the musculoskeletal system
specifically is helping to mai

social capital

Contextual characteristics of communities that describe how people develop trust and social ties. Social capital is also described as the glue that holds communities together.
a "contextual characteristic that describes patterns of civic engagement, trust

sport-based youth developement model

Programs that use sports in general, or a particular sport, to facilitate learning and life skill development.

sport league

An organization that exists to provide ongoing regulated competition in a specific sport.

sport tournament

A competition involving a relatively large number of competitors. It can be offered over a set period at a single venue or can be a set of matches or competitions that culminate in a single champion.

volunteer sport organization

(VSO)� Nonprofit local sport organization that provides organized sport opportunities for community members. VSOs are governed and supported through volunteer management and coaching.

youth sport

Organized physical activity for children and adolescents offered through schools, community organizations, or national sport organizations.

Early sport

In native communities, sport and contests often served the purposes of training youth for adult experiences; displaying the strength, skill, and prowess of community members; or celebrating the culture and religion of the community.
fishing, hunting, snow

First contests

the Montreal Curling Club, established by the Scots in 1807, organized the first curling contests in North America exclusively for the benefit of its 20 elite citizens
United States, the New York Athletic Club (established in 1850) built the first cinder

Theodore Roosevelt Presidency

local, state, and national funding was committed to the growth of parks and recreation facilities and spaces, and the Playground Association of America (which eventually became the National Parks and Recreation Association) was born.

Governing bodies

Amateur Sports Act in 1978 and the creation of national sport governing bodies (e.g., USA Swimming, USA Track and Field). These governing bodies have been given the task of sport development in the United States, and they govern U.S. representation in int

emphasis on participant

focus on continuing to attract new participants and keeping them involved in the programs, as well as the types of programs or sports offered, the time and place of activities, the organization and delivery of programs, and cost and pricing considerations

benefits of sport participation

positive aspects include physical benefits, improved family well-being, a sense of community, and increased social capital for families and other groups.

Family Life

Families report a greater sense of belonging and increased bonds through sport and recreation participation
athletic participation was associated with higher levels of family satisfaction

Types of organizations (VSO)

organizations work in conjunction with a network of organizations including their provincial and national counterparts
This network of organizations oversees and governs the various elements of the sport system.
Private facilities include organizations su

Public entities

Community sport in the United States is also offered through public entities such as schools and parks and recreation facilities and programs.
In some school settings (e.g., Texas), coaches are also expected to teach an academic subject, whereas in other

Private clubs

clubs� with paid management and operations staff,although many still rely heavily on volunteer coaches for the delivery of their youth and adult organized sport programs.

Management Challenges

Community sport presents a unique challenge concerning management because its structure and delivery system is varied and nonprescriptive
highly professional, using paid staff to govern, manage, and deliver the sport offering. Others are loosely organized

Personnel management

Personnel management begins with planning, a task that involves examining the organization's strategies, goals, and resources.
Recruitment can involve informal word-of-mouth contacts, advertisements, or broader search mechanisms.
participate. Coach traini

Community sport offerings

Community sport opportunities in North America are often provided through three basic structures: classes, leagues, and tournaments.


defined as instructional sessions that enhance the skill or fitness level of the participants.


organized forms of ongoing competition in a given sport.


organized forms of sport that usually extend over several days or weeks, starting with a large pool of participants and narrowing down to an eventual champion.

Youth sport offerings

Community youth sport offerings and the rate at which children take advantage of those offerings vary by demographic factors (e.g., socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity), cognitive and behavioral factors (e.g., attitudes, family influences, beliefs,

Instructional leagues

The goal of instructional leagues is to provide information and knowledge to children as they begin to play sports or are introduced to new sports.

After school programs

beneficial to children for the personal enjoyment that they experience, the safety and supervision provided, the academic enrichment and improvement in social skills that may occur , and the emphasis on physical health and fitness.
hours immediately after

athletics administrator

A person who provides administrative support to the school's various athletics programs.

athletics director

A high school senior administrator in charge of providing leadership and management of the school's interscholastic athletics programs.
function is to provide the leadership and management of the interscholastic athletics program.

centralized organizational structure

An operational model whereby all decisions are controlled by a central administration unit and carried down through the chain of command within an organization.
Centralized structures tend to have vertical reporting relationships often characterized as a

decentralized organizational structure

An operational model whereby respective units of an organization are given autonomy to control and carry out decisions, although each unit is expected to operate within the organization's guiding principles.
In these mega athletics programs, administrativ

interscholastic athletics

Combination of sport offerings whereby boys and girls can elect to participate in athletics at the high school level.
a segment within the sport industry that seems to draw the least amount of attention within the realm of sport management studies and aca

National Federation of State High School Associations

This national governing body provides leadership for the administration of education-based interscholastic sport and nonsport activities.
The NFHS was founded in 1920 to serve as the national leadership organization for high school sport and fine arts act

National Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Association

This organization, known as the NIAAA, is a national governing body that serves as a liaison between individual state high school athletics associations and state athletics administrator associations.

Private Schools

Schools that operate on moneys received through various forms of funding and giving (e.g., personal, religious, corporate).
private schools rely on donations, tuition allocations, or participation fees.
Private schools tend to be leaner in their managemen

Public Schools

Schools that operate on moneys received largely through local property taxes.

State athletics or activity associations

Governing body that sets rules and policies for high school sport eligibility, competitions, and state championship tournaments.

Interscholastic sport History

students from various public and private high schools in Massachusetts formed the Interscholastic Football Association in 1888
Boston-area schools that the first interscholastic athletics competition occurred.
interscholastic sport had become the largest

Midwest Federation of State Hight School Athletic Association

(MFSHSA) was created in 1921. The mission of the federation was "to protect the athletic interests of high schools belonging to the various state associations and to promote pure amateur sport

University Interscholastic League

1909, the UIL has provided leadership and guidance to public schools in Texas and has become the largest interschool organization of its kind in the world.
" is dedicated to offering character-building, educational competition to member school students in

Title IX

Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 was a landmark legislation that banned sex discrimination in public and private schools.


Most participants

Size of school districts

Significant consideration when structuring an athletics department.


Most budgets will be composed of the following categories: salaries and benefits, equipment, supplies, transportation, professional development, awards, and other miscellaneous costs.

Interscholastic sport governance

High school athletics competition that is governed by state athletics or activity associations.

Positions within professional associations

Executive director.
chief financial officer
director of media relations and marketing.
director of membership services.

Positions with Local school level

athletics director.
athletics business manager.
athletics trainer.

athletics business manager

The business manager often oversees a wide range of activities including the implementation of the athletics budget and all business-related affairs of the athletics department.
People in this role are often required to have a strong grasp of accounting p


Most coaches are full-time teachers who coach part time either for the love of the game or to supplement their income.
A couple common qualifications, however, are knowledge of the assigned sport and previous coaching experience.

Athletic trainers

Athletics trainers (ATs) are usually the first medical personnel on the scene when a sport-related injury occurs.
providing athletic training services to student-athletes, being accessible at all sporting events in the event of an injury, and serving as a


officiating in interscholastic athletics is a part-time job. Most states require officials to register with the state's governing agency and pass a competency exam.

Issues facing Interscholastic Athletics

Reducing game contests , cutting back on transportation and equipment, eliminating teams, and raising participation fees are just a few decisions that have been made by administrators to curtail budgets.
The budgets allocated for athletics fail to keep pa

Coach turnover and exiting

it more difficult to retain coaches as problems arise with athletes, parents, and fans, adding to the daily personal demands on coaches' time.

recruitments and retentions of officials

A shortage exists, and recruiting and retaining quality officials is extremely time consuming.

Participation options

Students become torn between their commitments to both teams, and some end up choosing to compete on the non-school-sponsored team only.

Fair play

Students and parents must be constantly reminded that competition is just a game rather than a war. Fair play is as much a concern for fans as it is for athletes.

Academic progress rate

According to the NCAA, this is a measure of how successful athletics programs on individual campuses are in ensuring that college athletes make appropriate progress toward their degrees.

Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act

Provides public information about the spending patterns of athletics departments in terms of men's and women's programs. Information about EADA may be found at athletics.
revenue streams that contribute to a college or university athletics

executive search firm

An organization that identifies talented administrators for positions such as college presidents, chancellors, provosts, athletics administrators, and coaches.


Historically Black colleges and universities (e.g., Alabama State University, Albany State University, Bethune-Cookman College, Florida A& M University, Grambling State University, Howard University, Tuskegee University).

licensing royalty

The earnings paid to the sport property, or licensor (e.g., athletics department), by a licensed manufacturer in return for the right to produce and sell merchandise bearing a logo or other mark associated with its sports program


outsourcing� In the context of this chapter's section on the marketing of college programs, it refers to the use of outside sport marketing firms to maximize revenues for athletics programs.
an effort to maximize existing revenue and access new revenue st

senior woman administrator

The highest ranking female administrator involved in the management of an NCAA institution's intercollegiate athletics department.
Divisions I and III, it designates "the highest ranking female administrator involved with the management of a member instit

tribal colleges and universities

The 37 tribal institutions of higher education ( in the United States and Canada.

Ticket operations

Process by which tickets are distributed to customers (season ticket holders and fans), coupled with attention to a high level of customer service

ticket scalping

Selling a ticket for a price in excess of the price printed on the ticket.
(2014-07-15). Contemporary Sport Management, 5E (Kindle Location 5770). Human Kinetics. Kindle Edition.

Intercollegiate history

During the latter half of the 1800s, college sport was essentially run by students, sometimes as social occasions, at other times as highly competitive contests, and often as a form of protest against boring recitations and a curriculum that did not match


National Collegiate Athletic Association
NCAA rules and regulations focus on amateurism, recruiting, eligibility, playing and practice seasons, athletically related financial aid, championships, and enforcement
These include the number of sports sponsored

Division III

largest of all 3 divisions
the Division III infrastructure is not designed to generate revenue.


National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics
With an emphasis on academic achievement, the NAIA is also dedicated to respect, integrity , responsibility, servant leadership, and fair play. In 1948, the NAIA was the first national organization to offe

National Christian College Athletic Association

(NCCAA ). Incorporated in 1968 and located in Greenville, South Carolina, the NCCAA focuses on "the maintenance , enhancement , and promotion of intercollegiate athletic competition with a Christian perspective"
Division I consists of 70 Christian liberal

Intercollegiate athletics within 2 year institutions

managed primarily by four organizations: the American Indian Higher Education Consortium Athletic Commission (AIHEC�36 schools representing 1,000 athletes), the National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA� 525 schools representing approximately 60

Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women

(AIAW) was established by female physical educators from colleges and universities in 1971 (Wilson, 2013). During its 10-year existence, the AIAW provided many opportunities for female athletes, coaches, and administrators
In 1980, the move by the NCAA to

Athletics Conference

basic function of a conference is to establish rules and regulations that support and sustain a level playing field for member institutions while creating in-season and postseason competitive opportunities.
vast majority of colleges and universities seek

Major power conferences

Thus, the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC), Big Ten, Big 12, Pacific-12 (Pac-12), and Southeastern Conference (SEC) are recognizable as major power conferences.

major vs mid-major conferences

The distinction between major and mid-major for Division I conferences, however, is the dividing line between those that have automatic bids in the BCS and those that do not.

Largest conference in US

The Eastern College Athletic Conference (ECAC), for example, is the largest conference in the United States, distinctive because of the fact that its 300 members from 16 states include schools associated with NCAA Divisions I, II, and III

Oldest black conference

the Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAA)
The CIAA is the nation's oldest Black athletic conference, founded in 1912.

MEAC and Southwestern Athletic Conferences

programs identified by the NCAA as having programs that failed to meet new academic requirements under the APR (academic progress rate)

Universities that turn profits

In 2006, OSU and UT were 2 of just 19 schools that turned a profit
sport finances revealed that out of 228 NCAA Division I institutions, only 7 (Louisiana State, Nebraska, Ohio State, Oklahoma, Penn State, Purdue, and Texas) were truly self-supporting, me

winning and high coach salaries

the researchers found no significant relationship between winning and high coaching salaries

Intercollegiate athletics administrators

degree, athletics administrators resemble managers in other business settings and industries. They must be able to execute the fundamental managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting.
all three

Director of Athletics

may include budget and finance, facilities, risk management, television contracts, compliance with laws and regulations of national and conference governing bodies, academic progress of college athletes, communication with the media, scheduling, marketing

Associate or Assistant Athletics Director

Associate and assistant ADs are clearly middle-level managers.
working closely with the AD and overseeing specific areas, such as marketing, fundraising, event management , facilities management, or athletics communications.

First Line Managers

Positions include academic coordinator, business and finance manager, compliance officer, development and public relations director, event and facility manager, marketing and promotions director, sports information director, ticket manager, senior woman a

Academic cordinator

passage of NCAA bylaw 16.3.1 , which requires all Division I programs to offer academic support and tutoring services to athletes, and the existence of the Academic Enhancement Fund Program, which allocates US $ 62,438 per year to each Division I athletic

Business and Finance Manager

The business and finance manager for an intercollegiate athletics department recommends and implements policies, procedures, and methods of accounting that ensure strict compliance with sound business practices in accordance with the rules and regulations

Compliance Officer

Broadly stated, the role of compliance coordinators is to develop educational processes that help everyone directly or indirectly involved with the athletics program understand and comply with the rules of the institution, the conference , and the nationa

Development and Public relations director

process of raising money from friends of an athletics program is called athletics fundraising, development, or advancement.
Athletics development officers are responsible for raising funds to support various aspects of the athletics department by identify

Event and Facility Manager

Facility scheduling, maintenance, improvements, and contest management are the major duties assigned to event and facility managers.

Marketing and promotions director

are motivated by the need to generate interest in the program through enhanced visibility, increased attendance, and expanding revenue streams. Marketing and promotions directors may be responsible for promoting ticket sales for individual games, nonreven

Largest fan base

college sport. Its efforts are inspired by the awareness that more than 173 million people, nearly half of whom are female, comprise the largest fan base of any sport entity

Sport information director

Sports information directors (SIDs)� also referred to as athletics communications specialists , college athletic communicators, sport publicists, and college sport public relations directors� are responsible for both technical and management functions.

Ticket manager

The primary responsibilities of the ticket manager are coordinating all ticket operations, designing the ticketing plan, and accounting for all money expended and received for tickets.
on to assist in setting the price of tickets, determining staffing, en

Equipment manager

purchasing and fitting equipment, inspecting and preserving uniforms, and establishing an accountability system (e.g., inventory, reconditioning, storage, cleaning) of equipment and garments.

Administrator in governing bodies

settings is the underrepresentation of women and minorities in conference offices
divisions perform their duties within three major role classifications: interpersonal, informational, and decisional
These functions are similar to those of an AD, except th

Collective bargaining

Process used to negotiate work terms between labor and management. All active league players are in a bargaining unit and thus form a collective unit (i.e., labor) for negotiating and bargaining with the owners
collective bargaining is used because all ac


A collective group of athletes in team sports who unionize so that they can bargain collectively with the league owners (i.e., management). Labor is typically represented by a union head in negotiations with management.

league think

Pioneered and most effectively implemented by the NFL, this term represents the notion that teams must recognize the importance of their competition and share revenues to ensure that their competitors remain strong.

LED signage

Signage located in the arena bowl and primarily found on the fascia below the upper bowl. This signage is computer generated and has the capability to add sound, animation, and other visual effects to present a colorful eye-catching message. LED (light-em

Local television contracts

Agreements made between professional teams and local television stations and regional sport networks. These agreements provide teams with additional media revenue beyond what they receive from the national television contract.

luxury tax

Device used to tax the teams that spend the most (or spend too much as defined by the CBA) on player payroll; those taxes are then shared with teams that do not have high payrolls.

management (professional sport)

When referring to the collective bargaining process, management refers to the collective group of ownership that is negotiating with the players, or labor. Management is typically represented by a league commissioner, who is technically an agent for the o

salary caps

Agreements collectively bargained between labor and management that establish a league-wide team payroll (i.e., salaries, bonuses, and incentive clauses) threshold that cannot be exceeded in most cases. The salary cap is typically set using a percentage o


The acquisition of rights to affiliate or associate directly with a product or event for the purpose of deriving benefits related to that affiliation or association

virtual signage

Signage that is generated by digital technology and placed into a sport event telecast so that it appears as though the sign is part of the playing surface or adjacent to the playing surface.

Professional sport

any sport activity or skill for which the athlete is compensated.
Compensation can be in the form of salary, bonuses, reimbursement for expenses, or any other type of direct payment.
exemplifies sport at its highest level of performance, and it generates

3 principals of professional sport

labor, management, and governance� are complex, diverse, and ever changing.


made up of the professional sport leagues, attempts to regulate, but not completely control, both labor and management.

History of professional sport

Professional sport can be traced to ancient Greece where, beginning with the Olympic Games in 776 BCE,
Boxers, jockeys, and runners were paid for their prowess during the early and mid-19th century. Baseball , however, was the first team sport to employ p

Unique aspects of professional sport

interdependence, structure and governance, labor- management relations, and the role of the electronic and new media.


The central premise that differentiates professional team sport from any other business is the need for teams to compete and cooperate simultaneously
function together collectively, some teams sacrifice the potential for higher revenue in the interest of

Structure and governance

League office includes league commissioner. board of governors. central administrative unit.

MLB commissioner

The MLB commissioner is responsible for representing the interests of all parties associated with professional baseball. These parties include owners, players, fans, television networks, corporate sponsors, host cities and venues, and the minor leagues.

Labor-management relations

baseball's antitrust exemption , collective bargaining, free agency, salary caps, and player draft.

baseball's antitrust exemption

This antitrust legislation was created to prohibit companies from dominating their respective markets in interstate commercial activity, thus creating a monopoly in which consumers have only one product choice rather than several.
granted MLB the right to

Collective Bargaining

National Labor Relations Act (NLRA). The NLRA provides three basic rights that are at the center of labor relations policy in the United Sates: (1) the right to self-organize, form, join, or assist labor organizations, (2) the right to bargain collectivel

Free agency

Free agency is the ability of players, after fulfilling an agreed-upon (through a CBA) number of years of service with a team, to sell their services to another team with limited or no compensation to the team losing the players.

Player draft

the player draft aims to be an equitable system for distributing new talent among all league members. The draft provides each professional sport league with a mechanism for the teams with poor records to have an advantage over teams with winning records i

Importance of television

No single factor has influenced the popularity of sport, the escalation in player salaries, free agency, and the growth and increase of corporate involvement in professional sport more than television. TV has
the Super Bowl has become one of the most succ

emerging sources of media coverage

Most notably, satellite television and the Internet have greatly increased the access of sport fans to a full menu of sport events.

Media contracts

Namely, MLB, the NBA, and the NHL all permit their member teams to negotiate local television contracts for regular season games, whereas the NFL does not.

Gate receipts

gate receipts and concessions accounted for more than 92% of the revenue of professional teams.

Licensing and merchandising revenues

Licensing revenues are generated when leagues and teams grant merchandise and apparel manufacturers the right to use their names and logos.
this revenue stream appears to have leveled off over the last dozen years.

Major challenges professional teams face

maintaining reasonable labor -management relations, developing new revenue streams, managing new technology, and dealing with globalization.


globalization, along with branding of a sponsor name on team uniforms, is the largest revenue frontier yet to be crossed by sport teams and leagues based in the United States

Common categories of work responsibility

Chief executive officer (CEO) or chief operating officer (COO)�responsible for the day-to-day functioning of the entire organization,
Chief financial officer (CFO)� responsible for the organization's accounting and financial planning Chief marketing offic

Categories of professional sport

Player personnel positions and business positions

Player personnel

This department is involved in identifying, evaluating, and developing potential and current players.

Medical, training, and team support

These people assume responsibility for the physical (and sometimes mental) preparation and readiness of the players.

Coaching staff

This group concentrates on all activities occurring between the lines.

player education and relations

People in these positions are typically responsible for educating players on issues like financial management, substance abuse, nutrition, image management, and additional higher education.

Video support staff

Responsibilities of the video support staff include producing and editing videos, purchasing and maintaining video hardware and software products, supervising and coordinating satellite feeds, and coordinating all broadcasting that originates at the home

stadium and facility staff

This group is responsible for the maintenance, upkeep, and repair of the playing surface.

Business positions

because they are responsible for generating revenue, marketing the product, developing a fan base, and working with customers and other stakeholders.

Ticket sales

sales. One of two types of sales representatives within the organization, ticket salespeople typically focus on selling season tickets, partial season tickets, and group tickets.

corporate sales

In contrast to those who primarily sell individual tickets, corporate salespeople target corporations exclusively.

Game experience

Responsibilities for these positions focus on enhancing the experience of people who attend games.


Responsibilities in advertising include designing and writing advertising copy and identifying, securing, and placing advertisements in a variety of media.


Like the game experience area, the field of promotions offers increasing opportunity as organizations focus on providing an optimal experience to spectators.

community relations

This department may be part of the public relations or marketing department.

media relations

This department is involved in assisting and working with the media by providing information necessary for game coverage and publicity.

database marketing coordinator

People in this area focus on building databases of information about the team's customers so that the team can more effectively serve its customers and better meet their needs.

hospitality coordinators

Hospitality coordinators are responsible for the game-related needs of corporate clients, club seat holders, and luxury box owners.


This department may or may not include the ticket sales staff. Ticketing personnel manage the ticket inventory.


The process of using a name, design, symbol, or any combination of the three to help differentiate a sport product from the competition.
Brand awareness� The consumers' recognition and recollection of the brand name
Brand image� The consumers' perceptions

external factors

Factors outside of a sport organization that affect the sport marketing climate (e.g., media, corporate sponsors, advertisers, spectators, geography, culture, economy, federal regulations, regulations of sport governing bodies).

internal factors

Factors inside a sport organization that affect the sport marketing climate (e.g., players, owners, team management, staff personnel).

marketing mix

The elements of product, price, place, and promotion, which sport marketers alter, modify, or manipulate to achieve marketing goals and objectives.

marketing plans

Comprehensive strategic and tactical frameworks for identifying and achieving a sport organization's marketing goals and objectives.
marketing plans should contain marketing strategy (broad or big-picture ideas) as well as marketing tactics (specific deta

marketing research

The systematic process of obtaining, analyzing, and interpreting data or information to evaluate and improve marketing practices.
. The type of information needed to develop a marketing plan includes but is not limited to information about (a) the product

market segmentation

The process of identifying smaller and viable clusters of sport consumers who may exhibit similar wants, needs, and interests regarding sport.
The key to market segmentation is being able to identify and group consumers based on elements such as their age


Place refers to consumers' abilities to access the sport event or experience. Place includes the location of the sport product (e.g., stadium, arena), the point of origin for distributing the product (e.g., ticket sales at the ice rink, sales by a toll-fr

product life cycle

The lifespan stages of a sport product include introduction, growth, maturity, and decline.
The life cycle seeks to depict the lifespan stages of a product, including the following: introduction (a product that is new to the market), growth (a product exp

promotions mix

The collection of integrated activities that seek to communicate, inform, and ultimately persuade consumers to participate in the sport consumption activity, experience, or event.

sport marketing

marketing�"The process of designing and implementing activities for the production, pricing, promotion, and distribution of a sport product or sport business product to satisfy the needs or desires of consumers and to achieve the company's objectives " (P

sport sponsorship

The acquisition of rights to affiliate or associate with a sport product or sporting event in order to derive benefits from the affiliation or association

SWOT analysis

A management technique available to sport marketers to help them assess the strengths and weaknesses of an organization and the opportunities and threats that it faces.
SWOT analysis, which includes four elements: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and

marketing sport is unique

Aspects of sport are intangible.
sport involves emotion
Sport is subjective and heterogeneous because the impressions, experiences, and interpretations about the sport experience may vary from person to person.
Sport is generally socially consumed and dep

10 P's

purpose, product, projecting the market, position, players , package , price, promotion, place, and promise.


The first step in the marketing plan process involves clarifying the purpose of the sport marketing plan and linking the plan to the organization's mission and core values.
"an organizational mission statement is important because it creates in people's h


The second step of the marketing plan process requires the sport marketer to analyze the dynamic and complex nature of the sport product.
three dimensions comprising the sport product: tangible goods, support services , and the game or event itself
The ga

projecting the market

the third step in the process of developing a sport marketing plan is a projection of the market climate. Projecting the climate requires a critical analysis of past market conditions and a keen understanding of present market conditions.
internal and ext


positioning refers to the process of establishing a sport entity in the minds of consumers in the target market.
Distinctive images are created in consumers' minds based on (1) the types of consumers who buy the product, (2) the design of the product as w


Consumers are the lifeblood of sport marketing; a customer orientation is mandatory for sport marketing success


step requires compiling or bundling the salient attributes of the product and presenting the product in the best possible manner to encourage selected target consumers to purchase it.


is determining the value of the product by assigning it a price. Price is the most visible and flexible element because of discounts, rebates, and coupons.
Consumer� Analyze all aspects of the consumer, including demographics, psychographics, purchasing b


The core of promotions is effective communication. Promotions plays a key role in communicating, creating, and establishing the image of a product
Open and honest communication with the public
Images and messages that are socially responsible


evaluating the extent to which the marketing plan met its promise to help achieve the sport organization's mission.
evaluation requires obtaining feedback about the marketing plan from internal and external sources.
the embrace of (a) technology and socia

Generation X & Y

are Generation X (people born from 1964- 1978) and Generation Y (people born from 1979- 1990) consumers.

Lead time

Lead time is a concept that is very important to sport pricing. It refers to the time lag between the time a ticket is purchased and the time of the actual game or event.

aspirational reference group

A group to which an individual wishes to belong.

cognitive dissonance

Feelings of anxiety or doubt that can occur after an important decision has been made.


A distraction from a course or activity.


Positive levels of arousal provided to sport spectators.

extrinsic rewards

Rewards given to a person by someone else.

intrinsic rewards

Rewards received by a person from the experience itself.

market segment

A portion of the population that is distinctive in terms of its needs, characteristics, or behavior.

need recognition

Perception of a difference between a desired state and the actual situation; the first stage of the decision-making process.

situational influence

The influence arising from factors that are particular to a specific time and place and are independent of individual customers' characteristics.
A situation is a set of factors outside individual consumers and removed from the product that they buy or it

target market

Market segment or segments identified as the focus of an organization's marketing efforts.

consumer behavior

is made up of the processes involved in the search, selection, purchase , and use of products, services, and experiences that fulfill consumers' needs or desires.

success of sport organization

The key to the success of a sport organization (e.g., a minor league baseball team) is to identify and satisfy customers' unfulfilled needs better or faster than the competition (e.g., other minor league or professional teams, college teams, or other ente

participation motivation

(1) achievement motivation, (2) social motivation, and (3) mastery motivation


Spectators have many motives for watching sport, including escapism, drama, excitement, and diversion.

consumer perception

Perception can be defined as a process by which a person selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli to create a meaningful picture of the world.
selective attention: choosing to pay attention to elements that are relevant to one's needs, attitudes, and ex

Consumer attitudes

Attitudes are based on a person's experiences (behavioral component), feelings (affective component), and beliefs (cognitive component ) about an object (Shank, 2008). These three components work together to formulate an attitude

group influence

These people and groups influence our values, norms, perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors by providing us with a valued point of comparison. Reference groups can be either direct or indirect. Direct reference groups require face-to-face interaction.

indirect reference groups

do not require direct contact, but they can be highly influential. They might consist of people such as athletes, coaches, musicians, actors, or politicians; alternatively, they might be groups or subcultures.

reference group and influence

But for the reference group to wield its influence, according to de Mooij (2004), it must be able to (1) make people aware of a product, (2) provide a chance for them to compare themselves with the group, (3) influence them to adopt attitudes and behavior

consumer socialization

Prompting and reinforcement can further assist in the socialization process.
Each of these processes� modeling, prompting, and reinforcing� also occur through indirect reference groups.
Over time, we are socialized into a way of consuming sport that is sh

evaluating purchase options

(1) a list of the potential products, and (2) the features and characteristics that they will use to evaluate those products

Consumer behavior challenges

The meaning and emotion of sport consumption
The globalization of sport
Virtual consumption
Compulsive consumption