Exam 1 Business and Professional Communication (chapters 1, 2, and 9)

CH 1



The process of making yourself available to employers in a formal setting and in the best possible light.

Professional Excellence

Being recognized for your skills as a communicator and serving as a role model to others.
Recognizing your strengths and developing your weaknesses
Being audience centered
Understanding the context
Possessing the ability to adapt and continually improve

Interpersonal Communication

Also referred to as people skills
Helps you build relationships in your personal and professional life, but these skills also can help you survive many challenges (e.g. conflict, difficult coworkers/clients)

KEYS is a communication process designed to...

enhance your ability to critically assess and then improve your communication skills.

KEYS is an acronym for...

Know yourself
Evaluate the professional context
Your communication interaction
Step back and reflect

Know yourself means...

actively assessing your skills as a communicator and then developing strategies to utilize your strengths and develop your weaknesses.

Evaluate the professional context entails...

proactively addressing the needs of your audience and understanding the constraints of the communication situation, as well as developing your skills for communicating with a variety of audiences and situations.

Your communication interaction requires you to...

monitor your own verbal and non-verbal cues, in addition to the cues from the audience within each communication interaction.

Step back and reflect encourages you to...

examine the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal messages you convey to others and the overall success of various communication interactions and then take what you've learned and start the process again, developing the ability to adapt and improve conti

Human communication

The process of understanding our experiences and the experiences of others through the use of verbal and non-verbal messages.

Communication Bravado

When somebody perceives their communication as effective, while those around them perceive it as ineffective.

What do ineffective communicators view communication as?

As simply talking
Truly effective communicators know that it is far more complicated than that.

1st step in overcoming weaknesses and starting on the road to professional excellence?

Understanding why communication is important and how the communication process works.


success is determined by how well an individual can tailor their message depending on the individual needs of many different customers.

Previous communication experiences

Depending on whether somebody's previous experience (e.g. buying a car for the first time) was positive or negative will form the basis for how they communicate in similar transactions in the future.

Because of this...

From a business standpoint, your initial communication impression is of critical importance.


an ongoing social institution that has its own set of behavioral rules

Organizational Culture influences how...

we (as members of a business or professional organization) frame our communication with others both within and outside that organization.

To be a competent communicator in an organization, you must be...

dynamic in adhering to the rules and norms of different communication situations

Communication relationships example

the way you communicate with a customer would be different than the way you communicate with your coworker which would also differ from the way you talk to your supervisor.

Organizational structures require that you be...

fluid in switching your communication strategies depending on your relationship with the other communicators.

This includes not only your initial communication, but also the...

type of feedback you give and the amount of appropriate self-disclosure the sender and receiver both provide one another.

When you are acting as the SENDER, you...

encode your messages with verbal and nonverbal cues to help others understand what you mean.

When the RECEIVER of your messages respond or (1)________ your message, you find out if...

1. Decode
if your message was successfully transferred

In one sense, the exchange of a message between sender and receiver is a coercion of meaning. In other words:

both parties play a role in circuiting a meaningful exchange.

Although the person initiating the exchange (the SENDER) can't control how the listener (or RECEIVER) interprets the message, the goal is for the listener to...

understand the meaning of the message as the sender intended it.

Tools for professional excellence:
Skills and competencies that are more common but less desired

Initiative/risk taking
Decision making
Global mindset
Quantitative skills

Tools for professional excellence:
Skills and competencies that are less common and less desired

Industry-related work experience

Tools for professional excellence:
Skills and competencies that are less common and more desired

Strategic thinking
Creative problem-solving
Leadership skills
Communication skills

Tools for professional excellence:
Skills and competencies that are more common more less desired

Analytical thinking
Ability to work collaboratively

The idea that one "cannot not communicate" means that...

messages have both a verbal and nonverbal component.
Does NOT mean that everything is communication.

T/F: People can send nonverbal cues unintentionally.

and people respond to these nonverbal cues as the receiver depending on how they interpreting the nonverbal cue accordingly.

Feedback is sent from the receiver to the sender. However, since the distinction between receiver and sender is arbitrary, feedback is the same as the ___________.


The notion of feedback reminds us, as communicators, to look for...

cues from the other person or persons with whom we are communicating.


the method by which you send your message

Always and everywhere, communication is ______________.


Context refers to the

location, time, and occasion where communication occurs.

Noise can be ___________ or ____________.

internal; external

External noise includes...

distractions such as audible talking during a meeting, ruffling of papers, or a cell phone going off in the next cubical.

Define external noise

any external factor that could interfere with a communicator's ability to focus on the message.

Define internal noise

any internal condition or state that interferes with the communicators ability to focus on the message.

Ex of internal noise

being hungry or tired

T/F: both types of noise can also interfere with your understanding of a message. You can be focused on a message and still not understand.


Relying almost exclusively on computer-mediated communication for business and professional interactions risks what?

letting your face-to-face communication skills suffer.

Another issue is that constant availability and connection with your work life can lead to:

stress, burnout, and information overload if you do not "unplug" from work from time to time.



Common challenges to business in the information age:
Knowing when to use computer-mediated communication or face-to-face communication can be challenging.

There are still many "traditional" communicators who prefer the intimacy of face-to-face interactions and find email or text interactions to be dismissive or insulting.
New media are inhibited in their ability to transmit nonverbal cues of intimacy and fa

New media is an appropriate form of communication for what kinds of messages?

Routine and simple information

Face-to-face communication is better than New Media for things like...

complex, urgent, or controversial messages.

Common challenges to business in the information age:
Practicing cultural sensitivity can be difficult

For intercultural communication competence, you must be an active learner of values, language systems, and cultural communication norms.

Intercultural communication involves...

the communication between and among individuals and groups across national and ethnic boundaries.
Ex. knowing that eye contact is seen as disrespectful in many asian countries would be important when doing business over there.

Common challenges to business in the information age:
Information overload can negatively affect your work and health

The price we pay for convenience and immediacy with computer-mediated communication is the difficulty of disconnecting from it.

What things that you use can result in getting information overload?

All the digital media you use for connivence, work, and enjoyment (smartphone, social media, email) can result in information overload.

Information overload exposes you to...

more messages than you can process

communication apprehension

an individual's level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons.

4 types of communication apprehension

1. Trait communication apprehension
2. Context-based communication apprehension
3. Audience-based communication apprehension
4. Situational communication apprehension

Trait communication apprehension

Means that one possesses a "shy trait".
In general, shy people tend not to raise their hands in class a lot, avoid certain social situations, and feel extremely anxious about giving a professional presentation.

Context-based communication apprehension

Describes a fear of communicating in certain contexts.
Ex. fear of public speaking
Student may not be nervous about meeting new people or participating in small groups, but presenting a speech in front of the class promotes a high degree of apprehension.

Audience-based communication apprehension

Explains a person's fear of speaking to certain people or groups.
Ex. a person may feel comfortable speaking in front of friends or in his or her social circle, but speaking in front of colleagues at work makes him or her extremely nervous.

Situational Communication apprehension

Refers to apprehension to communicate in specific sets of circumstances.
Everyone at some point in their lives is going to feel apprehensive about communicating something.
Think of a person you might want to impress, such as a boss or an interviewer. In g

8 Causes of communication apprehension

1. Novelty
2. Formality
3. Subordinate status
4. Peer evaluation
5. Dissimilarity
6. Conspicuousness
7. Lack of attention
8. Prior history

Ethics is the general term for the...

discussion, determination, and deliberation processes that attempt to decide what is right or wrong, what others should or should not do, and what is considered appropriate in our individual communal, and professional lives.

Ethical considerations are a variety of factors important for us to consider in any scenario in which we are...

making a decision, conducting an evaluation, or making a selection.

Ethical dilemmas

situations that do not seem to present clear choices between right and wrong or good and evil.

Many ethical considerations are connected to our values and virtues. Values are...

moral principles or rules that determine ethical behaviors.

Values are often articulated in...

should or should-not statements

organizational values

specific principles or guidelines such as safety, teamwork, integrity, or ownership that are typically outlined in support of any given organizational mission or goal.

Organizational values address both the experience of the people working for the company as well as...

the experience of customers with service and product quality.

CH 2


Your ethics must be developed and continually...


Verbal communication encompasses...

both our words and our verbal fillers (e.g. um, like)

Verbal messages are created through ____________.


Effective communication involves accurate interpretations of others' verbal messages as meaning is _______________.

Otherwise, the meanings of the words you communicate will not be understood.

*Understand that meanings may not be fully conveyed by a message and that many factors can lead to a listener's failure to understand what a speaker means.


symbols communicators use are...

abstract, vague, and sometimes arbitrary.

The process of meaning construction is also symbolic, because...

we use words to think about what things mean.

A must for professional excellence is being an __________-centered communicator



just because you send a message doesn't mean it was received the intended way

Communication rules

shared understanding of what communication means and what constitutes appropriate communication given the context.

Two kinds of rules guide communication

regulative rules and constitutive rules

regulative rules

describe when, how, where, and with whom to talk about certain things. These same rules also dictate appropriateness.

Constitutive rules

define what communication means by prompting us to count certain kinds of communication.
We learn what counts as paying attention and showing affection, as well as what counts as being inappropriate.

Nonverbal communication is also referred to as

body language

nonverbal communication includes

all the ways we communicate without words
"communication other than written or spoken language that creates meaning for somebody

_____% of messages are communicated nonverbally


*Human beings are visually dominant (nonverbal comm: people more likely to believe things they see over other senses)


Communication is optimized when verbal and nonverbal elements operate in integrated fashion, producing what kind of effect?

A coordinated and synchronized effect.

Nonverbal communication does what to all subsequent communication?

precedes and structures

The nonverbal system accounts for ____% to ____% of the total meaning of communication.

65% to 93%

Nonverbal behavior serves what 4 purposes?
(more details on page 30-31)

to express emotion
to convey personal attitudes
to present one's personality such as character, disposition, or temperament
To accompany verbal communication