#### Research Methods Quiz 3

A______ is a statistical estimate of how close to the population value a sample of a particular size is expected to be.

Confidence interval

When the sample size is __________ , the sample mean may be _________ the mean in(to) the total population.

small, far from

All of the following are true statements about large sample sizes, EXCEPT:

Larger sample sizes make it less likely that a study will yield statistically significant results.

Larger sample sizes make it less likely that a study will yield statistically significant results.

Sample size calculator & Sample size estimator

_______________ is related to the ability of a statistical test to detect significant differences in a population when differences really do exist.

Power

An error that occurs when a study population yields a significant statistical test result when one does not exist in the source population is known as:

Type I error

An error that occurs when a statistical test of the study population finds no significant result when one actually exists in the source population.

Type II error

What is the first step a researcher should take when designing a questionnaire?

List the topics that the survey instrument must cover

All of the following are true statements about questionnaires, EXCEPT:

Questionnaires should not include questions about factors influencing the relationship between exposures and outcomes.

What is the next step after determining the broad categories of questions and selecting the specific topics to be addressed in aquestionnaire?

To choose question and answer types that are appropriate

What type of questions allows a limited number of possible answers to be listed in a questionnaire?

Close-ended questions

All of the following are true statements about categorical variables, EXCEPT:

Categorical variables must be have at least four answer options

A(n) _____________ questionnaire measures what it was intended to measure in the population being assessed.

Valid

Factors that might influence the relationships between key exposures and outcomes are referred to as which of the following?

Potential confounders

What type of question forces respondents to select answers that do not truly express their status or opinions?

Closed-ended questions

How do most primary studies collect data from individual participants?

Interviews & In-person

The most important consideration(s) when deciding which data collection approach to use in a primary study is(are)?

The goals of the study and expectations of the sample population members

All of the following are true statements about recruiting study participants, EXCEPT:

Participation rates will be lower if study recruits understand the importance and value of the research project

Which is NOT considered a method for collecting and recording survey data?

All of the above are methods for collecting and recording survey data

The following are benefits of utilizing paper questionnaires when collecting data, EXCEPT:

Eliminates the need for later data entry

An interviewer who will be collecting data in a study should receive a comprehensive interviewer handbook that provides information about all of the following, EXCEPT:

Information about individual study participants

Direct age adjustment requires knowing the exposure or disease rates by age group in each population

True

Correlational studies are a useful starting point for generating hypotheses about associations, but they are not the final word on risk factors for a disease or cause-effect relationship.

True

Some universities require a professor to be listed as the PI on any research project that involves human subjects even if a student is taking the lead role in the conduct of the project.

True

A strong protocol should be detailed enough that the entire methods section of any paper that will result from the project could be written before data collection begins

True

In a case-control study, the controls must be similar to the cases in every way except for their disease status.

True

If the power estimates for a study are lower than desired, the easiest way to improve the power is to increase the sample size

True

Prospective cohort studies examining rates of incidence of disease require a series of questions about both exposure status and disease status

True

Decisions about the types of questions to ask must include considerations of which statistical tests the researcher wants to run on the collected data

True

The goal of recruiting is to maximize the participation rate among members of a sample population so as to yield a study population that is reasonably representative of the source population

True

Only a few out of every hundred calls made by random-digit dialing may yield one person willing to participate in the survey

True

Before conducting a statistical analysis of aggregate data, the data from each population must be entered into which of the following?

spreadsheet

On a scatterplot used to illustrate correlation, when the points are not exactly linear but a line for trend can be drawn through them, the correlation is said to be which of the following?

moderate

For continuous variables and other variables with responses that can be plotted on a number line, which of the following is used to calculate the correlation?

Pearson correlation coefficient

Which of the following tasks would need to be performed by the researcher if existing data is going to be analyzed?

identify an appropriate data source and supporting materials

Defining the study question and identifying partners is the first step in planning what type of analysis?

primary analysis

A Gantt chart can be very helpful for visually displaying which of the following?

research timeline

The sample population consists of individuals from the study population who are invited to participate in the research project

False

Researchers attempting to generate a random sample from the source population need to avoid what type of bias that could occur if each individual in the source population does not have an equal chance of being selected for the sample population?

nonrandom sampling bias

What type of sampling is usually the preferred option for producing a sample population that is similar to the source population as a whole?

probability based sampling

Which of the following should always be the top priority when designing and implementing an experimental study?

safety

If too many participants are recruited, the whole study will be almost worthless because the sample will not have enough statistical power to answer the study question

False

The standard expectation is that a study's analyses should have a power of what value or greater?

80%

For what type of questions must decisions be made about how many entries to include on a scale and whether there will be a neutral option?

ranked questions

Recording responses to open-ended questions verbatim without rephrasing, paraphrasing, "correcting," or interpreting them is an example of what type of characteristic of well-trained interviewers?

honest

Which of the following is the highest cost associated with interviews?

personnel

The major advantage of what type of survey is that they eliminate the need for later data entry?

computer assisted surveys

Anonymity

Protects participant's privacy

Belmont Report

Foundation for US policy in human research

Bioinformatics

Computer analysis of molecular-level data

Boolean operators

Searching data using and, or or not to refine hits

Close-ended questions

Allow a limited number of answers

Confidence interval

Determines how well two populations compare

Data mining

Extracting information from large record sets

Declaration of Helsinki

Guidelines for physicians doing research

Beneficence

Maximum benefits with minimal harm

Double translation

Assures interpretation from one language to another is accurate

Gantt chart

Research timeline layed out

IRB

Committee to assure the subjects, researcher and institutions are protected

Kappa statistic

Determines if two subjective interpretations agree

Exclusion bias

Using different eligibility criteria for cases and controls

Coercion

compelling an individual to participate in a research study in violation of the principles of automomy

Nonmaleficence

Study will do no harm

Nonresponse bias

Exclusion and failure to participate may skew the data

Nuremburg Code

First ethics guidelines for research

Open-ended questions

Allow explanations in answers

Likert scale

Participants rank preferences numerically

population based study

Best represents a larger population

Contingency question

Determines whether a respondent is eligible to answer subsequent questions

Primary Investigator(PI)

Oversees and directs all aspects of the research project

Selection bias

Population in a study do not represent the source population

Protocol

Describes processes and procedures involved in collecting data

Snowballing

Used all articles that cite a specific publication

Source population

Subset of the target population

Survey instrument

Questionnaire

Target population

Group that the study most benefits

Type 1 errors

Results of a study are significantly different but should be the same

Type 2 error

Results show no difference when a difference exists

Validity

Answers are correct

Vulnerable populations

May not be able to make an informed decision

___________ is(are) the measurement of the size / composition of the human body.

Anthropometry

All of the following are examples of anthropometric measurements, EXCEPT:

Blood pressure

_________________ is(are) physiological measurement(s) that can be accurately taken after minimal instruction.

Basic vital signs

Which of the following is NOT an example of an examination a clinician can conduct to examine many health states that machines are unable to assess well?

Heart rate

All of the following are examples of tests of physiological function, EXCEPT:

Spirometry, Electrocardiography (ECG),Audiometry, All of the above

Biological specimens such as urine, stool and saliva samples can be useful for identifying all of the following, EXCEPT:

Blood pressure

Which of the following is NOT an example of an additional assessment that can be conducted as a way to supplement self-reported information during the data collection process?

Surveys

Which of the following may be helpful for identifying the presence of a disease or markers for a disease?

Laboratory analysis of biological specimens

Which of the following is a test that measures lung function?

Spirometry

A valid study will have a value of kappa that is close to which of the following?

1

Which of the following is NOT one of the three main principles in biomedical research ethics?

Maleficence

All of the following are some of the eight central considerations in research ethics, EXCEPT:

Content

All of the following are true statements about using incentives to increase study participation rate, EXCEPT

Researchers may offer a substantial gift to all study participants (i.e. a new car)

__provide essential information about research projects to potential study participants so that they can make a reasoned decision about whether to enroll in the study.

Informed consent statements

Which of the following applies advanced techniques from information science and computer science to the compilation and analysis of health data?

Health informatics

What type of projects might use data mining and computational linguistics to explore social media events?

Public health informatics

What is the major limitation when using existing clinical records?

Records are often incomplete

All of the following are the primary goals of research ethics committees, EXCEPT:

Oversee research carried out on animals

Research Ethics Committees are also known as _________________ in the Unites States

Institutional review boards

Research proposals that will be submitted for review to a research ethics committee need to include all of the following information, EXCEPT:

Explain how study participants' information will be distributed to the public

A(n) ______________ may be granted when the research involves the analysis of existing records or existing biological specimens that cannot be linked to individuals.

Exemption

All of the following are issues that need to be resolved prior to submission of a research proposal to multiple research ethics committees, EXCEPT:

All of the above are issues that need to be resolved prior to submitting a research proposal to multiple ethics committees

Progress reports may be required by the ethics committee; these reports should include all of the following information, EXCEPT:

A report of each individual study participant, including personal information such address and phone number

Which statistic is reported as a percentage from 0% to 100%, where higher percentages indicate a greater presence of heterogeneity

I2 statistic

Which of the following are the two main threats to the validity of a meta-analysis?

Poor quality of included studies and publication bias

Which of the following is defined as looking up every article cited by eligible articles in order to identify other articles that might be relevant but not indexed in the selected databases?

Snowballing

When studies analyze existing clinical records, survey data, or population data rather than collecting new information from study participants, this is known as:

Secondary analysis