R & D Definitions

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Intuition

relying on common sense as a means of knowing about the world

Deduction

using logical reasoning and current knowledge as a means of knowing about the world

Authority

relying on a knowledgeable person or group as a means of knowing about the world

Observation

relying on what one observes as a means of knowing about the world

Empiricism

gaining knowledge through systematic observation of the world

Determinism

the assumption that phenomena have identifiable causes

Parsimony

the assumption that the simplest explanation of a phenomenon is most likely to be correct

Testability

the assumption that explanations of behavior can be tested and falsified through observation

Confirmation bias

seeking only evidence that supports our beliefs and ignoring evidence that contradicts those beliefs

Basic research

research conducted with the goal of understanding fundamental processes of phenomena

Applied research

research conducted with the goal of solving everyday problems

External validity

the degree to which the results of a study apply to individuals and realistic behaviors outside the study

Theory

an explanation of behavior that can be tested through research studies

Descriptive Research Question

a research question that asks about the presence of behavior, how frequently it is exhibited, or whether there is a relationship between different behaviors

Causal Research Question

a research question that asks what causes specific behaviors to occur

Literature Review

a process of searching for and reviewing previous studies related to a study being developed to add to the knowledge in an area and make appropriate predictions about the data

Abstract

a summary of an article that appears at the beginning of the article and in searchable databases of journal articles

Introduction

a section of an APA-style article that introduces the topic of the study, reviews relevant background studies, and presents predictions for the data

Method

section of an APA-style article that describes the participants, design, stimuli, apparatus, and procedure used in the study

Results

section of an APA-style article that presents a summary of the results and the statistical tests of the predictions

Discussion

section of an APA-style article that compares the results of a study to the predictions and the results of previous studies

Hypothesis

prediction regarding the results of a research study

Theory-Driven Hypothesis

hypothesis for a study that is based on a theory about the behavior of interest

Data-Driven Hypothesis

hypothesis for a study that is based on the results of previous, related studies (inductive)

Deductive Reasoning

using general information to make a specific prediction

Inductive Reasoning

using specific information to make a more general prediction

Descriptive Hypothesis

a prediction about the results of a study that describes the behavior or the relationship between behaviors

Causal Hypothesis

a prediction about the results of a study that includes the causes of a behavior

Nuremberg Code

A set of ethical guidelines developed for research with human participants based on information gained during the trials at Nuremberg of Nazi scientists conducting experiments on people without their consent under coercion after WWII.

Informed Consent

consent obtained from participants for participation in research after the participants have been informed about the purpose, procedure, and risks of the research

Coercion

forcing participants to participate in research without their consent

Deception

misleading participants about the purpose or procedures of a research study

Confederate

a person who is part of a research study but acts as though he or she is not, to deceive the participant about the study's purpose

Debriefing

discussing the purpose and benefits of a research study with participants, often done at the end of the study

Consent Form

a form provided to the participants at the beginning of a research study to obtain their consent for the study and to explain the study's purpose and risks, and the participants' rights as participants

Risk-Benefit Analysis

weighing the risks against the benefits of a research study to ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks

Confidentiality

it is the researcher's responsibility to protect the participants' identity and right to privacy (including participant responses) during and after the research study

Justice

fair selection of participants

Institutional Review Board (IRB)

a committee of knowledgeable individuals who oversee the ethics of research with human participants conducted at an institution

Exempt Studies

Studies that have the smallest amount of risk involved
Exempt from further review processes

Expedited Studies

...

Full-Review Studies

Highest amount of risk. Each member of the IRB reviews the research proposal. Tend to involve people for whom informed consent may not be possible without assistance. Highest psychological risk.

Demand Characteristics

a source of bias that can occur in a study due to participants changing their behavior based on their perception of the study and its purpose

Field experiment

an experiment conducted in the participants' natural environment

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)

committee of knowledgeable individuals that oversees the ethics of research with nonhuman animal subjects at an institution

Plagiarism

claiming another's work or ideas as one's own