neuro exam

What is unusual about the hair cells in audition? (Select all that apply

Potassium depolarizes the membrane, unlike what it usually does Ion channels in the hair cells mechanically gated, not voltage- or neurotransmitter-gated As the hair cells move in response to vibration, ion channels are mechanically opened (there is liter

Which of the following are involved in the somatic sensory system? (Select all that apply) *

All of these are part of the somatic sensory system - the receptors are found throughout the body and take information up to the somatosensory cortex of the parietal lobe.

Neglect syndrome is the result of damage to what area:

Posterior Parietal Cortex
Posterior Partietal Cortex is responsible for: Interpreting the sensations, including an accurate body image, spatial locations of objects, and learning body locations in space. Neglect syndrome (ignoring or suppressing

Which of the following are accurate similarities and differences between the touch and the pain pathway into the brain? (Select all that apply) *

The pain pathway first synapses in the spinal cord, whereas the touch pathway first synapses in the medulla
The pain and touch pathways both have their second synapse in the thalamus The pain pathway travels contralaterally after the spinal cord Pain firs

The first part of the middle ear to vibrate in response to soundwaves is: *

The tympanic membrane The pinna does not vibrate, but funnels the sound waves in to hit the tympanic membrane (aka the ear drum). This vibration leads to the ossicles moving, which leads to the oval window vibrating. This vibration leads to movement of th

True or False: In the gate-theory of pain, the interneuron between the touch and pain afferent neurons is excitatory. *

false Touch activates an INHIBITORY neuron, thus inhibiting the pain afferent pathway. Therefore, touching a site of injury will help to dull the pain.

What two things contribute to intensification of vibrations on the oval window? (Select two) *

The oval window is a smaller surface area than the tympanic membrane, thus concentrating the force of the vibrations
The ossicles act as a levers to intensify the force of the vibrations Sound waves need to be intensified in order to move through the more

What is involved in/the purpose of afferent auditory neurons traveling bilaterally from the ear (Select all that apply)? *

Each auditory cortex (there is one in each hemisphere) will receive information from both ears
Interaural time delays can be calculated
Localization of sound
The sound from both ears will reach the auditory cortex. The difference in the timing of

True of False: the pitch of a sound is affected by the frequency of the sound waves.

true Feedback
Frequency is the number of cycles of sound waves per second (Hz). This is pitch - high frequency = high pitch. Amplitude is the height of the waves (how intensely the air is compressed). This is loudness - high amplitude = loud, low amplitud

True of False: The receptor specific to touch is known as a nociceptor, and is activated in response to physical distortion of the skin. *

false Mechanoreceptors are the receptors for touch. They DO in fact respond to physical distortion of the skin, but again, they are called Mechanoreceptors. Nociceptors are pain receptors, and they respond to anything that could potentially damage tissue.

The olfactory cortex is located very close to the amygdala and the hippocampus. What does that seem to indicate? (select only the best option) *

Smells can trigger emotional memories
This was purposefully a trick question. While smell can bypass the thalamus, that is not the right answer to THIS question. You needed to read the question and answer in the most appropriate way. Smells can t

True or False: When tasting salty food, the initiation of the very first NT release is the direct result of a second messenger cascade. *

false Saltiness and sourness both depolarize the membrane directly because you are tasting Na+ and H+ ions respectively in the food - these ions pass through amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels and depolarize as a result of these positive ions entering the c

Olfaction is weird. Which of the following are uniquely true about olfaction?

The receptors for odorants are actual neurons, whereas most other receptor cells for the senses are not.
Olfactory neurons can bypass the thalamus, whereas the other sensory systems synapse in the thalamus. Cl- actually leaves the cell (diffusional drive

True or False: Certain parts of your tongue respond to different tastes (see image). *

false Each taste bud has multiple taste cells which each can respond to different tastants. Therefore, the idea that one part of the tongue is specific to a certain taste is not accurate.

What is the direct function of Phospholipase C?

It converts PIP2 to IP3 PLC creates IP3 out of PIP2, and then IP3 activates sodium channels and releases internal calcium stores.

True or false: IP3 releases internal calcium stores and that is the only way that calcium can cause neurotransmitter release. *

IP3 can also activate sodium channels which will depolarize the membrane and open up voltage-gated calcium channels. This is a secondary way that calcium can enter the cell and release neurotransmitters.

Which of the following are unique receptors in the gustatory or olfactory process? (select all that apply) *

Amiloride sensitive ion channels
G-Protein coupled taste receptor
Odorant receptor protein
Nociceptors are pain receptors, hair cells are not receptors, mechanoreceptors are touch receptors.

The processes of gustation and olfaction are both the result of your nervous system responding to __________. *

chemicals Gustation and Olfaction are considered the "chemical" senses because you are responding to chemicals in the environment (in your food for taste and in the air for smell).

What happens in EVERY taste cell - regardless of what you are tasting (sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami, etc.) Check ALL that apply.

Voltage-gated calcium channels are activated by depolarization
Calcium influx results in neurotransmitter release (exocytosis).
Amiloride sensitive ion channels are only used in salty and sour tastes. G-protein coupled receptors and second messen

asting sourness is the result of the function of which type of receptor? *

Amiloride-sensitive ion channels
Amiloride-sensitive ion channels are the same channels that are involved in tasting sodium, but they are also permeable to H+.

True or False: Visual acuity is the space that can be viewed by the retina when the eye is fixed. *

This is the definition for visual field. Visual acuity is the ability to distinguish two nearby points.

Which of the following is true when it is DARK out? (Select all that apply)

Rhodopsin is inactivated
The GPCR second messenger cascade on the photoreceptor is not active

True or False: A cone will respond only to one particular wavelength of light. *

Cones respond to color - a red cone will only respond to a red wavelength of light, blue cones only to blue wavelength, etc. Rods on the other hand respond to light in general.

True or False: The cerebellum is beautiful and amazing, and does so much work! It helps compensate for incorrect motor outcomes, and is one of the coolest parts of the brain. It is known as "the brain inside!


In the basal ganglia motor loop, if the globus pallidus was degraded, what would happen? (Select all that apply) *

The thalamus (VLo) would not be inhibited
SMA Supplementary Motor Area (would be overly excited
Too much movement
Globus Pallidus degradation is a cause of Huntington's disease. It results in no inhibition of the thalamus (VLo), which means over

Which areas of the brain convert motor information from "what do we want to do" to "how can we do it?" In other words, which areas PLAN the movements? (Select all that apply). *

SMA (Supplementary Motor Area )
PMA (Premotor Area)
Area 6
PPC (Posterior Parietal Cortex) tells you where you are in space and where things are around you. The PFC makes the decision as to what movements to make (both are the "what" to do). The

Where is the highest density of photoreceptors found (where is visual acuity the greatest)?

Photoreceptors are only found on the retina and in the fovea (which is part of the retina). There are no photoreceptors on the optic disk (why it's known as the blind spot), nor on the lens. The fovea is distinguished as being the location

What is a motor unit? *

A lower motor neuron and a muscle fiber

What are the two ways to grade muscle contraction? (Select two). *

Temporal summation
Recruiting more motor units
Mirror neurons and motor cortex are all involved in making the muscle movement in the first place. But in order to grade muscle contraction (increase or decrease the amount of contraction), you can h

Which of the following is true when the LIGHTs are on? (Select all that apply) *

On bipolar cells release NT
No glutamate binds to On bipolar cells, thus causing depolarization
When it is light out, no glutamate is released by photoreceptors. Therefore, there is nothing to bind to the NT-gated sodium channels in OFF bipolar c