EMT-B: Operations

A conscious and alert 92-year-old woman with chest pain is refusing EMS treatment and transport to the hospital. Her family insists that you transport her. This situation is MOST appropriately managed by:

advising the patient of the risks of refusing care.
Just because the patient is 92 years old does not mean that she does not have decision-making capacity and cannot make an informed decision. In cases where any patient refuses care, after determining tha

You are called to treat a 55-year-old man who is experiencing difficulty breathing. After making contact with your patient, he extends his arm out to allow you to take his blood pressure. This is an example of:

actual consent.
Actual consent, also referred to as expressed consent, is when the patient asks for your help outright. This may also include nonverbal gestures, such as extending the arm to you to allow you to take the blood pressure. Informed consent in

Which of the following is considered minimum personal protective equipment (PPE) when suctioning an unresponsive patient's airway?

Gloves and full facial protection
You should wear gloves when assessing or treating any patient. The level of personal protective equipment (PPE) used beyond gloves is dictated by the risk and type of exposure. When managing a patient's airway (eg, suctio

A patient presents with severe bradycardia, hypersalivation, vomiting, and excessive tearing. Which of the following agents would MOST likely cause his signs and symptoms?

Nerve agents (eg, V agent [VX], sarin [GB], soman [GD], tabun [GA]) are among the most deadly chemicals developed. Designed to kill large numbers of people with small quantities, nerve agents can cause cardiac arrest within seconds to minutes of exp

Which of the following creates a secure loop at the working end of a rope, which can be used to attach the end of the rope to a fixed object or a piece of equipment?

Figure eight on a bite
Although EMTs infrequently perform special rescue operations (ie, urban search and rescue [USAR]), they should have a basic working knowledge of the different ropes and knots used for rescue purposes. The figure eight on a bite knot

After arriving at a mass-casualty incident where other ambulances are already present, you should notify the dispatcher and then:

report to the staging area.
Once you arrive at the scene of a mass-casualty incident where an incident command system has already been established, you should report to the staging area, the area designated for all incoming ambulances and resources. The s

A 52-year-old woman crashed her minivan into a tree. She is pinned at the legs by the steering wheel and is semiconscious. After gaining access to the patient, you should:

perform a primary assessment and provide any life-saving care before extrication.
Unless there is an immediate threat of fire, explosion, or other danger, you should perform a primary assessment and begin any live-saving care as soon as you have gained ac

Proper guidelines for safe reaching include all of the following, EXCEPT:

reaching no more than 30" in front of your body.
Safe reaching practices are critical to the prevention of a back injury. When reaching, you should keep your back in a locked-in position. You should avoid twisting or hyperextending your back, and should r

All of the following are considered key components at the scene of a mass-casualty incident, EXCEPT:

an on-scene emergency physician.
On-site communications, an adequately staffed treatment area, and a supply area near the treatment area are some of the key components at a mass-casualty incident. Although the physician medical director is ultimately resp

When sizing up a motor-vehicle crash in which a small passenger car struck a bridge pillar and sustained severe damage, you should:

ensure that there are no hazards and then try to open one of the doors.
After ensuring your own safety, you should attempt simple access to the patient, trying to get to him or her as simply and quickly as possible without using any tools or breaking any

Which of the following statements regarding the use of an escort vehicle when en route to an emergency call is correct?

An escort vehicle should be used only if you are unfamiliar with the patient's location.
Generally, escort vehicles should not be used when responding to an emergency scene. The biggest danger of using an escort occurs at intersections, which is where mos

In most states, the EMT is required to report which of the following occurrences?

Animal bite
Although each state may have slightly differing reporting laws, most require the EMT to report cases such as child or elderly abuse, sexual assault, animal bites, and injury that occurs during the commission of a crime. Injury to a minor is ty

At the scene of a mass-casualty incident, you notice a bystander who is emotionally upset. An appropriate action to take would be to:

assign the bystander a simple, non-patient-care task.
One of the most effective ways to reduce stress in a bystander at the scene of a mass-casualty incident is to assign the bystander a task that is not related to patient care. This may involve assisting

You arrive at the scene of a traffic accident in which multiple vehicles are involved. You see at least two patients who are lying on the road and are not moving. You should:

request additional ambulances.
As soon as you determine that there are more patients than you and your partner can effectively manage, you should immediately request additional help. Waiting until you are overwhelmed with critically injured patients is no

During the triage process, which of the following injuries or conditions would classify a patient as a high priority?

A large avulsion to the arm and an altered mental status
During triage, patients with an altered mental status, who are in shock, or who have problems with airway, breathing, or circulation, are potentially salvageable and are given immediate priority. Pa

Who has ultimate authority for all issues regarding patient care at the scene of a mass-casualty incident?

EMS medical director
The incident commander (IC) is responsible for all logistical and operational aspects of a mass-casualty incident (MCI), such as designating section officers and working in conjunction with other agencies (eg, police, fire, EMS). For

Upon arriving at the scene of an overturned tanker truck, you see a clear liquid leaking from the rear of the tank. The driver is still in the vehicle and you can see that his face is covered with blood. You should:

request fire department assistance if they are not already en route.
Upon determining that you are dealing with a potential hazardous materials incident, you should immediately request specially trained personnel (eg, fire department, Haz-Mat team) if the

How does a unified incident command system differ from a single incident command system?

In a unified incident command system, plans are made in advance by all agencies that assume a shared responsibility for decision making
Regardless of the type of incident command system (ICS) used, a single incident commander (IC) must be in charge. In a

When requesting medical direction for a patient who was involved in a major motor-vehicle accident, you should do all of the following, EXCEPT:

use radio codes to describe the situation.
When giving a report to medical control or requesting medical direction, you should avoid the use of radio codes, such as "10-50." The physician may not be familiar with such codes. There is clearly less risk of

The scene size-up includes all of the following components, EXCEPT:

donning personal protective gear.
The components of the scene size-up include determining scene safety, assessing the mechanism of injury (MOI) or nature of illness (NOI), determining the number of patients, and requesting additional help if needed. Perso

The information that would be of LEAST pertinence when educating the public on injury prevention is:

how to provide rescue breathing.
The goal of an injury prevention program is just that, prevention. If rescue breathing is needed in a situation, the injury has already occurred. As EMS providers, we are consequence managers. Additionally, we have a respo

Which of the following actions demonstrates an EMT's knowledge of crime scene preservation?

Advising a law enforcement officer after moving a coffee table to access a critically injured patient

While en route to the scene of an injured person, dispatch advises you that law enforcement personnel are at the scene. This indicates that:

the scene is potentially unsafe.
The presence of law enforcement at the scene indicates, at a minimum, that the scene is potentially unsafe, otherwise they would not be there. While you are en route, you should make radio contact with the police officers

Following an apparent terrorist attack, numerous patients present with shortness of breath and persistent coughing. A green haze is noted in the area in which the patients are located. Which of the following agents should you suspect they were exposed to?

Chlorine (CL)
The patient's signs and symptoms are indicative of a pulmonary (choking) agent, specifically chlorine (CL). Chlorine (CL) was the first chemical agent ever used in warfare. It has a distinct odor of bleach and creates a green haze when relea

While caring for an emotionally disturbed 30-year-old male, he suddenly becomes violent and needs to be physically restrained. During the restraint procedure, you should:

maintain communication with him and closely monitor his airway.
Physical restraint may be necessary if a patient is a threat to him- or herself or others. If it becomes necessary to physically restrain a violent patient, there are certain, specific guidel

Upon arriving at the scene of a crash involving a large truck, you immediately note the presence of an orange placard on the side of the tank that the truck is pulling. This indicates that the vehicle is carrying a/an ______________ agent.

The color of a warning placard indicates the general classification of agent being carried, while the United Nations (UN) number in the center of the placard indicates the exact agent being carried. For example, a red placard bearing the UN numb

A man armed with a shotgun has taken two people hostage and has shot one of them. Upon arriving at the scene, you should:

have the incident commander guide you to a shielded staging area and wait for the tactical team to bring the patient to you.
Upon arriving at the scene of a tactical situation, such as a hostage situation, the presence of a sniper, or any exchange of gunf

When driving in emergency mode on a multilane highway, the emergency vehicle operator should keep to the:

extreme left lane so motorists can yield to the right.
When traveling on a highway with more than one lane, the emergency vehicle operator should remain in the extreme left-hand (fast) lane. This allows other motorists to yield to the right as they see yo

You arrive at the scene of a young male who was stabbed when a burglar broke into his house. Law enforcement officers are present. The patient, who is unresponsive with several stab wounds to the chest, is lying in a narrow space between a couch and coffe

move the coffee table, begin patient care, and notify a police officer.
After ensuring your own safety, your primary responsibility when functioning at a crime scene is to provide patient care. Optimally, you should help preserve the scene at the same tim

Which of the following statements regarding the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) respirator is correct?

Long sideburns or a beard will prevent the proper fit of a HEPA respirator.
If you are caring for a patient with known or suspected tuberculosis (TB), regardless of whether the patient is coughing, you should place a surgical mask (or high-flow oxygen, if

When the incident command system is activated at the scene, you should expect to:

report back to your section officer in between assignments.
The incident command system (ICS) was established in order to maximize effective operations at the scene and maximize the number of lives saved. Deviation from the ICS jeopardizes lives and incre

While assisting a paramedic in starting an IV on a patient, you are inadvertently stuck by the contaminated needle while attempting to place it in the sharps container. You should:

seek medical care as soon as possible.
If you receive an exposure while providing patient care, you should notify your supervisor or designated infection control officer and seek medical care as soon as possible. However, this should be done after you hav