Genitourinary Dieases

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Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)
Symptoms: painful (burning) urination, frequent urge to urinate, if involves kidneys�fever, flank pain

Causative Organism: Escherichia coli
Major Group: Bacteria
Shape: bacillus
Gram Stain: Gram negative
Mode of Transmission: self-inoculated, transfer from anus to urethra, or sexual contact (void precaution)
Further Info: much more common in females
Preven

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)
Symptoms: painful (burning) urination, frequent urge to urinate, if involves kidneys�fever, flank pain

Causative Organism: Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Major Group: Bacteria
Shape: cocci
Gram Stain: Gram positive
Mode of Transmission: self-inoculated, transfer from anus to urethra, or sexual contact (void precaution)
Further Info: much more common in femal

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)
Symptoms: painful (burning) urination, frequent urge to urinate, if involves kidneys�fever, flank pain

Causative Organism: Proteus mirabilis
Major Group: Bacteria Shape: bacillus
Gram Stain: Gram negative
Mode of Transmission: self-inoculated, transfer from anus to urethra, or sexual contact (void precaution)
Further Info: much more common in females
Preve

Urinary Schistosomiasis (Missionary disease)
Symptoms: chronic disease, abdominal pain, anemia, malnutrition, cough, diarrhea, impaired immune system, enlarged spleen & liver

Causative Organism: Schistosoma sp.
Major Group: Helminth
Mode of Transmission: infected snails, fresh water
Prevention: remove snails from water
Treatment: anti-helminthic drug

Vaginitis and Vaginosis
Symptoms: discharge, itching, pain, odor (varies�some fish-like)

Causative Organism: Candida albicans
Major Group: Fungi (yeast)
Mode of Transmission: sexual, opportunistic
Further Info: watery, white discharge
Prevention: hygiene, healthy immune system, do not douche
Treatment: anti-fungals

Vaginitis and Vaginosis
Symptoms: discharge, itching, pain, odor (varies�some fish-like)

Causative Organism: Trichomonas vaginalis
Major Group: Protist
Mode of Transmission: sexual
Further Info: profuse greenish, frothy discharge, fish-like odor, no cyst form
Prevention: hygiene, use condom, avoid hot tubs and other people's wet towels
Treatm

Gonorrhea
Symptoms:
males� burning on urination, discharge
Females�asymptomatic � the time, vaginal pain, discharge, may lead to PID

Causative Organism: Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Major Group: Bacteria
Shape: diplococci
Gram Stain: Gram negative
Mode of Transmission: sexual, can be transmitted through oral sex
Further Info: Prevention: use of condoms
Treatment: antibiotics

Chlamydia
Symptoms:
female�� to � of time, no symptoms at all, can lead to PID
Male�white discharge, may or may not have pain on urination

Causative Organism: Chlamydia trachomatis
Major Group: Bacteria
Shape: varies
Gram Stain: none
Mode of Transmission: sexual, mother to child
Further Info: intracellular pathogen, most common STD worldwide, one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide

Syphilis
Symptoms: 3 stages
1. Single chancre (a firm, painless, non-itchy skin ulcer)
2. Diffuse rash, on palms of hand and soles of feet
3. Systemic issues, gummas (soft, non-cancerous growth), neurological & cardiac symptoms

Causative Organism: Treponema pallidum
Major Group: Bacteria
Shape: spirochete
Gram Stain: none
Mode of Transmission: sexual, mother to child
Prevention: use of condom
Treatment: antibiotics

Genital Herpes
Symptoms: cold sores, genital lesions, tingling, burning, painful, blister-like lesions

Causative Organism: Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2
Major Group: Virus
Mode of Transmission: Direct or indirect contact with lesion, sexual, mother to child, Further Info: 1 above waist, 2 below (?), latent virus, reactivation
Prevention: avoidance of exposu

Genital Warts
Symptoms: painless warts

Causative Organism: Human papilloma virus (HPV)
Major Group: Virus
Mode of Transmission: skin-to-skin contact
Further Info: can lead to cervical cancer
Prevention: vaccine
Treatment: None