CCJ 4701 Exam 2 Study Guide

Conceptualization is the process by which we specify precisely what we mean when we use particular terms. a. True
b. False

a. true

Every variable should have two important qualities; their attributes should be exhaustive as well as mutually exclusive.
a. True
b. False

a. true

Ordinal measures are variables whose attributes may be logically rank-ordered. a. True
b. False

a. true

Reliability is measuring what you think you are measuring. a. True
b. False

b. false

Reliability is threatened every time there is a single observer as the source of data. a. True
b. False

a. true

A lower-level measure cannot be converted to a higher-level one. a. True
b. False

a. true

It is always a good idea to make more than one measurement of any subtle or complex social concept, which is known as:
a. test-retest method b. inter-rater reliability c. split-half method d. face validity

c. split-half method

An empirical measure that adequately reflects the meaning of the concept under consideration is known as: a. reliability
b. validity c. accuracy d. face validity

b. validity

Particular empirical measures that may or may not agree with common understandings of our individual mental images about a specific concept are known as:
a. reliability b. validity c. accuracy d. face validity

d. face validity

Content validity refers to: a. a comparison of measures to some external criterion
b. an empirical measure that may or may not agree with our common understanding of a particular concept c. the degree to which a measure covers the range of meanings includ

c. the degree to which a measure covers the range of meanings included within the concepts

The production report generated at the city police department contains the number of arrests made by each officer on a monthly basis. What level of measurement would number of arrests be?
a. nominal b. ordinal c. interval d. ratio

d. ratio

The words or symbols in language used to illustrate subjective thoughts or mental images about things we may encounter in daily life are known as:
a. operations b. concepts c. observations d. measurements

b. concepts

Operationalization involves: a. describing how actual measurements will be made
b. adding up the sum of the parts to determine the whole c. removing negative correlations from variables d. making the necessary measurement

a. describing how actual measurements will be made

A person's height as a measure of a person's IQ would be seen as having what problem? a. precision
b. reliability c. accuracy d. validity

d. validity

The primary difference between the interval and the ratio level of variables is that: a. interval is rarely used
b. with ratio there is an absolute meaning of zero c. with interval there is an absolute meaning of zero d. none of the above

b. with ratio there is an absolute meaning of zero

A researcher has measured fear of crime by asking the subjects whether or not they were afraid of crime and by asking them to rate from 1 - 10 their own fear of crime. Which is the highest level of measurement that is illustrated by this example?
a. nomin

b. ordinal

The key standards for measurement quality are:
a. mutual exclusivity and exhaustibility b. reliability and validity c. pattern and repetition d. duplicity and veracity

b. reliability and validity

Which of the following statements is not correct? a. a measure is valid if it truly measures the underlying concept
b. a measure is reliable if it is observable over time c. a measure is reliable if it is constant d. both validity and reliability are impo

b. a measure is reliable if it is observable over time

In research, the process of regarding something as real (such as crime seriousness) when it is not is called:
a. reification b. validity c. typology d. reliability

a. reification

Sampling is often used when it is not possible to collect information from all persons you want to study and when it is not necessary to collect information from all persons.
a. True b. False

a. true

When using probability sampling, researchers generalize from observed cases to unobserved ones. a. True b. False

a. true

A good way to avoid sampling bias in the assessment of public opinion about a specific criminal justice topic is to employ the use of a radio call-in show since those who call radio talk shows represent everyone in the population.
a. True b. False

b. false

Random selection permits the researcher to link findings from a sample to the body of probability theory in order to estimate the accuracy of those findings.
a. True
b. False

a. true

Stratified sampling results in a greater degree of representativeness but at the same time increases the probable sampling error.
a. True
b. False

b. false

Cluster sampling is a very efficient tool, but the efficiency means a less accurate sample since with each cluster there is a chance for sampling error.
a. True b. False

a. true

Sampling is the process of: a. selecting observations
b. determining values c. hypothesis testing d. generating data

a. selective observations

Sampling is used for two reasons, sometimes it is not necessary to collect data from all persons and it: a. is possible to collect data from all persons
b. is statistically significant c. is often not possible to collect information from all persons d. ma

c. is often not possible to collect information from all persons

When a research chooses a sample that is not typical of a large population this is known as: a. a cluster
b. probability c. nonprobability d. bias

d. bias

A basic principle of probability sampling is that a sample will be representative of the population from which it is drawn if:
a. all members of the population have an equal chance of being selected for the sample b. the researcher uses a method of select

a. all members of the population have an equal chance of being selected for the sample

The purpose of sampling is to select a set of elements from a population in such a way that the descriptions of the sample statistics accurately portray the parameters of the population. This is best achieved through use of:
a. a convenience sample b. ran

b. random selection

Which of the following is not a reason for using random selection methods in selecting samples? a. random selection is a check on conscious or unconscious bias
b. random selection gives access to probability theory c. random selection allows for estimates

d. random selection allows for privacy

Which of the following is not appropriate for use as a sampling frame? a. telephone directories when you wish to sample attitudes toward a new law
b. lists of licensed drivers when you wish to ask juveniles their opinions about drinking prohibitions
c. ta

b. lists of licensed drivers when you wish to ask juveniles their opinions about drinking prohibitions

Which of the following is not an example of a multistage cluster sample? a. the British Crime Survey
b. the National Crime Victimization Survey c. Uniform Crime Reports d. polling data during an election year

c. Uniform Crime Reports

In order to study active criminals who have not been arrested for their criminal acts, the researcher would be wise to employ which type of sampling technique?
a. purposive sampling b. snowball sampling c. convenience sampling d. stratified random samplin

b. snowball sampling

When a researcher uses probability sampling, he/she can:
a. never be sure that the sample reflects the population from which it was drawn
b. estimate the amount of sampling error that can be expected
c. never guarantee the population elements of a known n

b. estimate the amount of sampling error that can be expected

Dwayne wanted to find out what the citizens of Canton think about a proposed law that would require sex offenders to be treated in the community in lieu of prison confinement and he decided to randomly call people listed in the phone book. What is his sam

c. telephone listings

On the first day of the semester your introductory criminology instructor handed out a very long questionnaire asking things that you did not think was appropriate about your drinking habits. Back in the dorm you complained to your roommates and discovere

d. reliance on available subjects

Your criminal justice class requires a study of the success of your state's drug courts. The professor suggests that you first select 10 counties from your state. From those ten counties you will select the two largest cities from each. Finally the drug c

b. multistage cluster sampling

Quota samples, judgmental samples, snowball samples and reliance on available subjects are all examples of:
a. nonprobability sampling
b. probability sampling
c. sampling distributions
d. sampling frames

a. nonprobability sampling

Multistage cluster sampling with stratification, systematic sampling, simple random sampling and disproportionate stratified sampling are examples of:
a. nonprobability sampling
b. probability sampling
c. sampling distributions
d. sampling frames

b. probability sampling

The method of relying on available subjects is sometimes misleadingly called:
a. cluster sampling
b. convenience sampling
c. snowball sampling
d. quota sampling

b. convenience sampling

Reliance on available subjects can be an appropriate sampling method if:
a. the researcher wants to study the characteristics of people who are passing the sample point
at some specified time
b. collecting data from people what have all characteristics of

a. the researcher wants to study the characteristics of people who are passing the sample point

The value for a given variable in a population is a:
a. population parameter
b. sample element
c. sample statistic
d. equal probability of selection method

c. sample statistic

When a researcher uses a multistage cluster sampling technique they must repeat several sets including:
a. listing and stratifying
b. listing and counting
c. listing and sampling
d. listing and analyzing

c. listing and sampling

An RA at a local university devised a plan to spot check the dorm for illegal drinking by knocking on every 5th
door on each floor. What technique was the RA using?
a. stratified sampling
b. simple random sampling
c. quota sampling
d. systematic sampling

d. systematic sampling

With the use of stratified sampling a researcher wants to reduce the:
a. sampling error
b. standard error
c. number of dependent variables
d. time it takes to draw a sample

a. sampling error

If you did not have the sampling frame of your population but still wanted to use a probability sampling technique for statistical reasons, you should select what type of sample?
a. quota
b. snowball
c. cluster
d. stratified

c. cluster

National Crime Victimization Survey and the British Crime Survey both use the following technique to gather
data?
a. simple random samples
b. stratified sampling
c. multistage cluster sampling
d. quota sampling

c. multistage cluster sampling

Under what conditions would it be appropriate to use a snowball sampling technique?
a. when the characteristic of interest to the study is a deviant one and only a small number of people who know one another are required
b. when your questionnaire can be

a. when the characteristic of interest to the study is a deviant one and only a small number of people who know one

If a researcher has a list of 10,000 elements and wants to sample 1000 and selects every 10th element she is
using:
a. simple random sampling
b. cluster sampling
c. systematic sampling
d. Quota sampling

c. systematic sampling

If the variable that you are interested in studying is so rare that it is unlikely to be discovered using random sampling, what is the best alternative?
a. accidental sampling
b. quota sampling
c. stratified sampling
d. purposive sampling

d. purposive sampling

Sampling is used because:
a. it may not possible to collect information from the entire population
b. it is necessary to collect information from the entire population
c. samples are useful tools only in experimental designs
d. it is easier and you can gu

a. it may not possible to collect information from the entire population

Which of the following is accurate?
a. the reason that researchers use probability samples is because they guarantee representativeness of the sample
b. in general, the more heterogeneous a population, the smaller the sample needed for representativeness

d. a sample is representative of the population from which it is drawn if the aggregate characteristics of the sample approximate those of the general population

What factors are not accounted for when using probability sampling?
a. each member of the populations has a known chance of being selected
b. knowing that each member of the population has a chance of being selected allows the researcher to generalize
bac

d. when the population is homogeneous there is a greater need to use probability sampling than when the population
is heterogeneous

Which of the following are true with respect to representativeness?
a. a sample represents a population's if it is exactly the same on all relevant variables
b. a sample is representative if it approximates the population
c. a sample needs to be represent

b. a sample is representative if it approximates the population

If a researcher has a population of college students from which a sample has been drawn and concludes that on average there are higher grades achieved by those students who live on campus than those who commute, higher grades is an example of what?
a. a s

c. a sample statistic

Which of the following is not accurate with respect to probability sampling?
a. enhances the likelihood that the results reflect the population from which the sample was drawn
b. probability sampling offers a way to measure the degree of success in accomp

d. it helps draw a sample but makes generalization to other populations more difficult

High-caliber qualitative studies:
a. retain richness
b. recognize meaning
c. do not lose track of context
d. all of these answers are correct

d. all of these answers are correct

The primary advantage of the unstructured interview is that it provides:
a. more specific data
b. more numerical data
c. more interaction with participants
d. more breadth of information

c. more interaction with participants

Qualitative data interpretation is different than that of quantitative data interpretation in that it accepts:
a. multiple realities
b. survey data
c. idealist perspective
d. linear regression in all circumstances

a. multiple realities

Structured interviews consist of:
a. spontaneously created questions
b. predetermined questions and answer sets
c. timed specific responses

b. predetermined questions and answer sets

A primary advantage of the semi-structured interview when compared to the structured interview is that it allows:
a. more data to be gathered
b. unscheduled probes to be used
c. cognitive changed to take place
d. multiple topics to be studied

b. unscheduled probes to be used

Which of the following types of researchers have NOT historically used qualitative interviews:
a. criminologists
b. sociologists
c. anthropologists
d. chemists

d. chemists

Qualitative interviews can occur:
a. face to face
b. online
c. over the phone
d. all of the answers are correct

d. all of the answers are correct

Type of data analysis depends on:
a. research objectives
b. analytical techniques
c. population being studied
d. types of notes taken

c. population being studied

Grounded theory stems from:
a. quantitative techniques
b. analysis of patterns and themes
c. linear regression
d. diverse populations

b. analysis of patterns and themes

Unstructured interviews taking the following shapes:
a. conversational shape
b. flat shape
c. survey questions
d. none of the answers are correct

a. conversational shape

Knowledge is typically constructed from:
a. a single perspective
b. multiple perspectives
c. the critical realist perspective
d. structural positivism

b. multiple perspectives

The interview schedule for focus groups can be:
a. structured
b. semi-structured
c. unstructured
d. all of the answers are correct

d. all of the answers are correct

The goal of sampling is to reduce potential biases. a. True b. False

a. true

Nonprobability sampling cannot be used in criminal justice research. a. True b. False

b. false

Professor Smith is studying attitudes toward gun control and plans to assess support for firearms registration by determining whether or not her research subjects say they would travel to countries where the possession of unlicensed guns is legal. Her cri

a. face validity

The number of counts on an indictment is what level of measurement? a. nominal
b. ordinal c. interval d. ratio

d. ratio

Age of an offender is an example of which level of measurement? a. interval
b. nominal c. ratio d. ordinal

c. ratio

Ratio measures are the highest level, followed by:
a. interval, nominal and ordinal b. nominal, interval, ordinal c. interval, ordinal, and nominal d. ordinal, nominal, interval

c. interval, ordinal, and nominal