lateral rectus muscle
superior oblique muscle
eye muscles. Makes pupils constrict
What are the different motor functions of the oculomotor (III) nerve?
The oculomotor nerve (third cranial nerve; CN III) has three main motor functions: Innervation to the pupil and lens (autonomic, parasympathetic) Innervation to the upper eyelid (somatic) Innervation of the eye muscles that allow for visual tracking and g
Which cranial nerve (s) attaches to the pons?
The trigeminal, abducens and facial nerves arise in the pons.
What are the respiratory nuclei associated with the pons?
The pontine respiratory group
What is the origin of the Vagus (X) nerve? Which peripheral systems are associated with it?
Originates from the medulla of the brainstem. The vagus nerve functions contribute to the autonomic nervous system, which consists of the parasympathetic and sympathetic parts. The nerve is responsible for certain sensory activities and motor information
What areas of the body does the vagus (X) nerve innervate?
Laryngopharynx - via the internal laryngeal nerve.
The superior aspect of the larynx (above vocal folds) - via the internal laryngeal nerve.
Heart - via cardiac branches of the vagus nerve.
Gastrointestinal tract (up to the splenic flexure) - via the term
What cranial nerve innervates the taste buds of the posterior 1/3 part of the tongue? Anterior 2/3? Are they general senses or special senses?
Glossopharyngeal nerve innervates the posterior 1/3 part of the tongue (ix)
The facial nerve innervates the anterior 2/3 of the tongue (vii)
They are special senses
What cranial nerve innervates the cornea?
The trigeminal nerve (v) innervates the cornea
What cranial nerve innervates the retina?
The optic nerve (ii) innervates the retina
Which cranial nerves are associated with the autonomic/parasympathetic nervous system?
The parasympathetic nervous system controls many of these functions through 4 cranial nerves: the oculomotor, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, which are also known as cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X.
Which cranial nerve innervates the sternocleidomastoid muscle and trapezius?
The accessory nerve (XI) innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius.
What nerve innervates the muscles of mastication? (temporalis and masseter)
trigeminal nerve (V) innervates the muscles of mastication
CN I - OLFACTORY
CN II - OPTIC
CN III - OCULOMOTOR
CN IV - TROCHLEAR
CN V - TRIGEMINAL
CN VI - ABDUCENS
CN VII - FACIAL
CN VIII - VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR
CN IX - GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL
CN X - VAGUS
CN XI - ACCESSORY
CN XII - HYPOGLOSSAL
The cerebral cortex is a thin layer of the brain that covers the outer portion of the cerebrum. Often referred to as gray matter.
Gyri and sulci
Folding of the cerebral cortex creates gyri and sulci which separate brain regions and increase the brain's surface area and cognitive ability.
longitudinal is most important
How is the brain protected?
The brain is protected by the bones of the skull and by a covering of three thin membranes called meninges. The brain is also cushioned and protected by cerebrospinal fluid. This watery fluid is produced by special cells in the four hollow spaces in the b
has a rich supply of blood vessels, which provide nutrients to nervous tissue.
loosely covers the brain and spinal cord and gets its name from its web-like appearance
a tough, fibrous covering that adheres to the bones of the skull.
Circle of Willis explained
The circle of Willis also allows blood to flow across the midline of the brain if an artery on one side is occluded. The circle of Willis thereby serves a safety valve function for the brain, allowing collateral circulation (or flow of blood through an al
Describe the general structure and function of dural venous sinuses.
Dural venous sinuses are within the endothelium between the endosteal and the meningeal layer of the dura mater. They receive blood from the brain, the skull, the orbit, and the inner ear. All the blood from the brain goes to these sinuses and is eventual
Identify the location and function of the choroid plexus.
The choroid plexus is a network of capillaries and specialized ependymal cells found in the cerebral ventricles of the brain. The choroid plexus serves two roles for the body: it produces cerebrospinal fluid and provides a toxin barrier to the brain and o
the functions of the reticular formation.
The reticular formation has projections to the thalamus and cerebral cortex that allow it to exert some control over which sensory signals reach the cerebrum and come to our conscious attention. It plays a central role in states of consciousness like aler
Describe the tracts that compose the cerebral white matter.
Association: conduct info within the same hemisphere
Commissural: conduct info to corresponding areas in other hemispheres
Projection: conduct info into lower CNS area
Describe the structures and functions of the limbic system.
The limbic system is the portion of the brain that deals with three key functions: emotions, memories, and arousal (or stimulation). This system is composed of several parts, which are found above the brainstem and within the cerebrum. The limbic system c
What is the function of the hippocampus?
plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, and in spatial memory that enables navigation.
What is the function of the Amygdala?
responsible for the perception of emotions such as anger, fear, and sadness, as well as the controlling of aggression. The amygdala helps to store memories of events and emotions so that an individual may be able to recognize similar events in the future.
Describe the locations and functions of the sensory, association, and motor areas of the cerebral cortex.
Sensory areas receive sensory input, motor areas control movement of muscles. Association areas are involved with more complex functions such as learning, decision making and complex movements such as writing.
Explain the significance of hemispheric lateralization.
Lateralization is the differing functions of the left and right hemispheres of the brain. Research over the years has shown that damage to one hemisphere or the other can produce different problems and knowing this can help predict behavior.
Identify the locations of the interpretation of visual, auditory, and somatic sensations.
Visual interpretation is located in the occipital lobe
Auditory interpretation is located in the temporal lobe.
Somatic sensation is located in the parietal lobe
Identify areas that control speech and skilled muscular movement.
Broca's area, everything mostly in the frontal lobe
What are the functions of the epithalamus?
The function of the epithalamus is to connect the limbic system to other parts of the brain. Some functions of its components include the secretion of melatonin and secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland by the pineal gland circadian rhythms), and
List the functions governed by the nuclei in the brain stem.
Midbrain: controls unwanted body movement
The pons contains nuclei that relay signals from the forebrain to the cerebellum, along with nuclei that deal primarily with sleep, respiration, swallowing, bladder control, hearing, equilibrium, taste, eye moveme