P.I.E. Final


act is moral if it treats other people equally


act is moral if the consequences/outcomes are positive

Virtue Ethics

the core of morality is developing reasonable habits in all areas of life

Moral Relativism

the view that all cultural standards are equally correct within a culture. Therefore whatever majority believes within a certain culture is true

Modus Tollens

if moral relativism were true, then X; but x is false; therefore MR is false.

Choices can harm

Increasing patients' medical options can be a harm, regardless of whether they choose to exercise the option. Having the option of choosing death means that the default of staying alive is replaced by the option of staying alive or choosing death.

pain/interest for animals/equal consideration

-Equal consideration: different groups require different treatment but we must still give equal consideration. This does not mean identical treatment but that different beings require different treatment and different rights. A dog cannot reason so it sho

Marginal cases problem

If it is always wrong to kill a human being but not wrong to kill an animal, what is the justification? Some argue that there is sanctity of human life but there is no external privilege obviously granted to us. Some argue it's because a cow has no "sense


-Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common type of talk therapy (psychotherapy). You work with a mental health counselor (psychotherapist or therapist) in a structured way, attending a limited number of sessions. CBT helps you become aware of inaccur

Punching up vs. down

The belief that it is okay to verbally attack those in a position of power and status but not in the case of discriminated or disadvantaged groups

Concept of personhood

-Argument that abortion is okay because we cannot classify fetuses as people and the moral community consists of all and only people, not all human beings
-Traits central to the concept of personhood
1. Consciousness (of objects and events external and/or

Future of value

Killing is wrong because it is the ultimate theft of all future experiences and happiness. Because a fetus would develop into a human being with a future life's worth of happiness and experience, abortion is robbing the fetus of its future value and there

Concept Creep

Concepts like abuse, bullying, trauma, mental disorder, addiction and prejudice now encompass a much broader range of phenomena than before, expanded meanings that reflect an increasing sensitivity to harm

Violinist thought experiment

-You wake up in the morning and find yourself back to back in bed with an unconscious violinist. A famous unconscious violinist. He has been found to have a fatal kidney ailment, and the Society of Music Lovers has canvassed all the available medical reco

Three arguments for free speech

-Rescinding Ms. Murphy's invitation would limit expression of free speech at Kenyon College. It would signal that her ideas and student supporters are not welcome on campus. It is okay to disagree with people and their beliefs but it is not okay to force

Default Immigration

The question of whether to have a default answer of yes for immigrants with conditions to not permit or a default answer of no with conditions to permit

Special obligations to fellow countrymen

The argument that someone has more of an obligation to help their fellow citizens in need than the world's poor. Although Americans are overall much better situated and economically advantaged than the poorest people in the rest of the world, we have a gr

Freedom of association

People and groups have the basic freedom of the right to associate or dissociate with others. Countries share this right and can therefore, exercise the freedom to not associate with any immigrants, even refugees, if they choose to.

Singer luxury argument

It is immoral to continue to buy luxury items that one does not need when there are impoverished people who are unable to even afford food. It is the difference between a minimal increase in pleasure and an innumerable increase in quality of life


Thought experiment regarding world poor. Imagines countries as lifeboats that have a capacity of people and the world's poor in the water or on sinking lifeboats. One method is to overfill the lifeboat with the poor and sink, the other is to fill the boat

Intrinsic good/instrumental good

-Intrinsic good is something that is good in and of itself, like joy.
-An instrumental good is something that is not good by itself but brings good consequences

Discussion of property rights

-We have entitlements of rights and desert. --Negative rights are rights that only require that people leave others alone and not interfere: the right to life, property rights, right to privacy and the right to exercise religious freedom
-Positive rights

People seeds

-people-seeds drift about in the air like pollen, and if you open your windows, one may drift in and take root in your carpets or upholstery. You don't want children, so you fix up your windows with fine mesh screens, the very best you can buy. As can hap

killing/let die

-Active killing is the administering of the means to death, like lethal injection or drugs. Arguments: killing is always wrong; active killing ends suffering of terminally ill
-Passively letting die is ceasing treatment and allowing the disease to run its

three arguments on abortion

1: the right to bodily autonomy supersedes the baby's right to life
2: killing is always morally wrong because it is the ultimate theft of all future experiences
3: we cannot classify fetuses as people because they don't have the traits of personhood

three arguments on euthanasia

1: human beings have the right to bodily autonomy and can do what they want with their bodies
2: it is not morally okay to passively let someone die and make them suffer when they could be given painless medicine to kill them, even though it's active kill

three arguments on animal rights

1: animals do not have as developed of a moral conscious as we do so they inherently do not have the same rights
2: animals have the interest to not suffer and equal consideration says we have to consider all living things equally but that does not mean w

three arguments on world poverty

1: it is always wrong to buy anything that you do not need because it adds only minimal increase in pleasure when it could very much help another person
2: we have entitlements, we have a property right which means no one has a claim to anything we own si

three arguments on immigration

1: we have a special obligation to our fellow countrymen because we share the same national goals and have the same culture
2: freedom of association--> people have basic right to associate or disassociate with others
3: we live in a liberal egalitarian s

greater moral evil rule

If it is in your power to prevent something bad from happening, without sacrificing anything nearly as important, it is wrong not to do so