Extremities Part 1 (Skeletal Features, articulations)


What part of the femur articulates with the acetabulum?


What depression in the proximal portion of the femur accommodates the attachment of a ligament?

fovea capitis femoris

What is the constricted, proximal portion of the femur?


What is the long central portion of the femur?

Shaft (diaphysis)

What is the proximolateral projection of the femur palpable on the lateral side of the hip?

greater trochanter

What is the femoral projection on the proximal posteromedial surface?

lesser trochanter

What is the thick, oblique ridge of bone on the proximal, posterior side of the femur between the trochanters?

intertrochanteric crest

What feature runs between the trochanters anteriorly?

intertrochanteric line

Onto what feature of the femur does the pectineus insert? This feature lies between the lesser trochanter and the linea aspera

Pectineal line

On what feature of the femur does the gluteus maximus insert?

gluteal tuberosity

What is the elevated ridge on the posterior midline of the femur?

linea aspera

What features of the femur border the popliteal surface medially and laterally?

medial and lateral supracondylar lines

What feature of the femur is the site of attachment for the adductor magnus?

adductor tubercle

What parts of the femur articulate with the tibia?

medial and lateral condyles

What prominent bony structures lie on the medial and lateral sides of the femur distally?

medial and lateral epicondyles

What part of the femur articulates with the patella?

Patellar surface

What is the broad, superior portion of the patella?


What part of the patella points inferiorly?


From lateral to media, list the two bones of the leg.

fibula and tibia

What part of the tibia articulate with the femur?

medial and lateral condyles

What ridge of bone lies on the midline of the tibia's superior surface?

intercondylar eminence

What part of the tibia articulates with the fibula?

fibular articular surface(facet)

Onto what feature of the tibia does the patellar ligament attach?

tibia tuberosity

What ridge of bone lies on the anterior of the tibia's shaft?

anterior crest

What is the hammer-like structure of the tibia that forms the prominence on the medial side of the ankle?

medial malleolus

What feature of the tibia forms the inferior tibiofibular joint?

fibular notch

What feature on the posterior aspect of the tibia runs distally from lateral to medial and is part of the origin for the soleus muscle?

the soleal line

What is the proximal end of the fibula?

head of fibula

What is the distal end of the fibula?

lateral malleolus

What is the collective term for the short bones of the ankle?


Which of the tarsals articulates with the tibia?


Which of the tarsals forms the proximal row?


What is the heel bone?


Which of the tarsal bone is considered the intermediate bone?


Which of the tarsals is distal to the talus on the medial side of the foot?


From the medial to lateral, list the tarsals of the distal row.

- medial cuneiform
- intermediate cuneiform
- lateral cuneiform

What are the long bones in the middle of the foot?

metatarsal bones
* tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal bone

What are the bones of the toes?


What are the two bones in the great toe?

proximal and distal phalanges

What are the three bones in digits 2-5 of the foot?

proximal, middle, and distal phalanges

List the three arches of the foot

-Medial longitudinal arch
-Lateral longitudinal arch
-Transverse arch

Which arch of the foot is formed by the calcaneus, talus, navicular, and cuneiform bones?

medial arch

Which arch of the foot is formed by the calcaneus and the cuboid and metatarsals IV and V?

lateral longitudinal arch

Which arch of the foot is formed by the distal row of tarsals and the bases of all five metatarsals?

transverse arch

What ligament originates along the acetabulum and attaches to the fovea capitis femoris?

Ligamentum teres
-ligament of the head of the femur

What two articulations make up the knee?

-tibiofemoral joint
-patellofemoral joint

What structure joins the quadriceps femoris to the patella?

quadriceps tendon

What structure joints the patella to the tibia?

patellar ligament

What ligament connects the femur and the fibula and prevents hyperadduction?

lateral (fibular) collateral ligament

What ligament connects the femur and the tibia and prevents hyperabduction?

medial (tibial) collateral ligament

What two C-shaped pads of fibrocartilage lie between the femoral and tibia condyles?

-medial meniscus
-lateral meniscus

Which of the meniscus within the knee is attached to a collateral ligament?

medial meniscus

What two ligaments within the knee cross to form a "X" or cross?

-Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
-Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)

Which of the cruciate ligaments tightens on extension to prevent hyperextension?

anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)

Which of the cruciate ligaments tightens of flexion to prevent hyperflextion?

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)

What three bones are involved in the ankle joint?

tibia, fibula, talus

What ligament binds the tibia to the foot on the medial side and prevents overeversion?

deltoid ligament

What ligaments bind the fibula to the foot and prevent inversion?

-anterior talofibular
-posterior talofibular

What group of joints within the foot allows inversion and eversion?

intertarsal joints

What joints within the foot lie between the tarsals and metatarsals?

tarsometatarsal joints