Chapter 1


what is history?

The interpretive study of the events of the human past


of the senses, components are usually "things

Who is the founder of Psychology?

Wilhelm Wundt

When did Wilhelm Wundt discover psychology?


Can the study of history be objective?

it can attempt to be presented as fairly as possible but historians were often not there to be able to experience the events

Personalistic theory

the view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the ideas of unique individuals

Naturalistic theory

The view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the Zeitgeist, which makes a culture receptive to some ideas but not to others.

Who was the founder of American Psychology?

William James

Cyclical hypothesis

The belief that history can be understood in terms of repetitive patterns or cycles

linear-progressive hypothesis

A view of history marked by belief in the inevitable growth and progress of human knowledge and institutions

chaos hypothesis

the belief that there is no pattern or direction in history; history has no meaning except that attributed to it by humans

Pluralistic Approach

many histories, different areas and situations and therefore cannot put everything into one "pattern

What were the three "old schools" of psychology?

structuralism, functionalism, gestalt psychology


an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind


A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.

gestalt psychology

a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts


shared, common set of assumptions, beliefs about nature, or subject matter, of a particular scientific discipline

paradigmatic stage

According to Kuhn, the stage in the development of a science during which scientific activity is guided by a paradigm. That is, it is during this stage that normal science occurs.

revolutionary stage

According to Kuhn, the stage of scientific development during which an existing paradigm is displaced by a new one. Once the displacement is complete, the new paradigm generates normal science and continues doing so until it too is eventually displaced by

preparadigmatic stage

According to Kuhn, the first stage in the development of a science. This stage is characterized by warring factions vying to define the subject matter and methodology of a discipline.

Is psychology a science?

Yes! It relies on formal, systematic observation to answer questions about behavior

Leta Stetter Hollingworth

One of the first psychologists to focus on child development and on women's issues

who studied functional periodicity?

Leta Stetter Hollingworth