One key element of individuality is ________
culture (and subculture)
Differences among people occur on a number of sociological levels. These differences can be overcome and understood, or they can become obstacles to good communication and understanding.
What are the levels?
3) Race and Ethnic Group
4) How we develop a "we vs. them attitude
Generally, cultures coincide with ________
national or political boundaries
Subcultures usually are not completely out of step with the larger society's culture. There is, however, something about the subgroup culture that sets its members apart. It might be ______, __________, _________, __________, or any combination of these.
values, traditions, beliefs, lifestyle
Important in understanding subcultures is understanding the terms _______ and ______ group.
race and ethnic
a group of people who are biologically similar
a group of people who share a common cultural heritage usually based on a common national origin or language
Explain the main difference between race and ethnicity.
- often have distinguishing physical characteristics.
- race alone is not a factor influencing communication
- may be distinguished by their language, religion, or some other aspect of their culture.
- ethnicity with its cu
During the process of socialization, we learn that some groups are acceptable and others are unacceptable. The acceptable groups are seen by us as _______.
NOTE: We are more comfortable with in-groups than with groups we consider unacceptable. We see the
members as being similar to us, and we expect the members to hold beliefs and values very much like our own, and to act and think as we would.
___________ are those groups with whom we feel uncomfortable�groups with whom we have less inclination to interact on a regular basis.
NOTE: Generally, we do not hold members of out-groups in a particularly favorable light. We may be suspicious of the motives of an out-group because we do not fully understand its culture. Using our own culture as the standard, we may find the
It is always the ________ group that defines who is a stranger and who is not.
NOTE: The people who seem strange to us are not strangers to those with whom they hold
common cultural traditions.
What makes someone a stranger?
- those whom we encounter who seem strange to us,
- those whose ways of thinking and acting are unfamiliar
- those who are not members of our in-groups
people who are close enough that we cannot ignore their presence, but they are unfamiliar to us
The more we believe a person is like us, the less likely we are to
feel _______. Thus, we might look for similar psychological reactions, similar group affiliations, and similar cultural aspects.
List 6 areas you can evaluate to make your communication more thoughtful and accurate. Briefly explain each.
1) Recognizing Our Tendency to Categorize
2) Looking for Exceptions
3) Checking Our Attributions
4) Evaluating Scripts
5) Checking Perceptions
6) Allowing Differences
discuss "Recognizing Our Tendency to Categorize".
When we encounter someone who is different, we dump that person into one of our large categories or stereotypes.
discuss "Looking for Exceptions".
- start to look carefully for the exceptions to your categories/stereotypes
EX: If you think all Hispanics are loud, think about times when you have encountered Hispanic people who were not loud
- Another way to look for exceptions to your categories is t
List the 4 main ways we think when speaking on Attributions...
1) Our positive behavior = Attributable to our good character
2) Their positive behavior = Attributable to the environment or the circumstances
3) Our negative behavior = Attributable to the environment or the circumstances
4) Their negative behavior = At
discuss "Evaluating Scripts
- Behavior or communication that seems strange to you may simply be a different script presenting itself. Stop and think about what the unexpected behavior means to the stranger
- Is this offensive behavior, or does the stranger mean something quite diffe
discuss "Checking Perceptions
it is recommended that we simply check our perceptions with strangers to see if these perceptions
are accurate. Instead of assuming that we know what a stranger means, we need to check.
List the 3 steps in the three-step process for checking our perceptions.
1) Describe the other person's behavior, being careful to simply describe what was observed without evaluating or labeling the behavior.
2) Tell the stranger how you interpreted the behavior. In doing so, be matter of fact. Refrain from any hint of a nega
discuss "Allowing Differences
accept that there is more than one way to view something or to understand something. People have different perspectives, but that does not mean that
some are superior to others or more correct than others.
Cultures have an underlying foundation of ________ or
a foundation of _________.
NOTE: Cultures fall along a continuum, with no single culture
being all one or the other.
_______ cultures believe the individual is more important, while _______ cultures believe the group is more important.
_______ Have a More Vertical Culture while ________ Have a More Horizontal Culture.
- Individualistic cultures
- Collectivistic cultures
In _________ cultures, there is ranking and hierarchy, while _________ cultures tend to be more egalitarian.
In _________ societies, the communication tends to be
so direct that a person rarely needs to check the context to fully understand the meaning. In more ________ societies, context is extremely important.
__________ Cultures involve Low-Context Communication while ________ cultures involve High-Context Communication
Collectivistic cultures regulate privacy needs by _________ means while Individualistic cultures regulate privacy needs by _________ means.
Context Is Important in Determining Meaning for ________ cultures. Context Is Only Minimally Important for ________ cultures.
What are the 5 obstacles in understanding?
5) Changing Attitudes
means that we use the standards common in our own culture to judge the behavior and culture of other people.
The antidote to ethnocentrism is _________.
(trying to understand the meaning of others' behavior and communication within the context of their culture, not our own.)
judgment based on previous decisions and experiences
NOTE: Prejudice involves an attitude that generally stems from a negative stereotype.
NOTE: This easily leads to discrimination