Human anatomy and physiology ( structure and function of tissue/ integumentary system)

what causes pigment in the epidermis

carotene, melanin, hemoglogin

what happens when the papilla of a hair follicle is distroyed

the color of the hair will become lighter

two componants of the integumentary system

cutaneous membrane and accesory structure

what cell forms the strata


the five strata (layers) of the epidermis

stratum basale
stratum spinosum
stratum granulosum
stratum lucidum
stratum corneum

what glands are distrubuted across the body surface

merocrine glands

what glands are located near hair follicles

sebaceous glands

Name the stagees of regeneration of skin following an injury

inflamation cellular migration epidermis
covers granulated tissue epidermis covers scar tissue

four main functions of the skin

maintain homeostasis provide protection holds
sensory receptors excrete waste

function of the skeletal muscle

provide movement maintain posture maintain
body temperature guard bodys entrences and exits

what best describes the term sarcomere

largely made of myosin molecules

which protein regulates muscle contraction


what is the order of occurens during muscle contraction

calcium ions is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
calcium ions bind to troponin myosin cross-bridges bind
to actin the myosin head pivots tward the center of the
sarcomere the myosin head binds an ATP molecule and detaches
from the actin the free myosin head splits ATP

what is the most important factor in decreasing the intercellular
concentration of calcium ion after contraction

active transport of calcium into the saracopasmic reticulum

what type of stem cells are located betwen the endomysium and
sarcolema that functions in the repair of damaged muscle tissue

satallite cells

what are the layers of muscle connective tissue

epimysium periomysium endomysium


the basic unit of stratified muscle tissue


the cell membrane of stratifed muscle fiber cell

what are the characteristics of fast fiber

large-diameter densely packed myofibrils
large glycagon reserves few mitochondria

what are the characteristics of smooth muscle

neurons that innervate smooth muscles are under involontary
control smooth muscle cells are uninucleate do not
contain sarcomers the thin filaments of smooth muscle
fibers are attached to dense bodies

what are the four major differences between skeletal and cardiac
muscle cells

cardiac muscles are involontary skeletal muscles are
concsesly controled cardiac muscles contraction is
controled by ANS skeletal muscle contraction is controled
by SNS

modes of secretion

merocrine apocrine holocrine

merocrine secretion

when the secretion of a cell is secreted via exocytosis(sweat)

apocrine secretion

portions of the cell gets pinched of and becomes the secretion

holocrine secretion

secretion is produced in the cytoplasm and gets released by the
rupture of thr plasma membrane


a cell structure specialized for cell-to-cell adhesion


type of desmosome that attaches cells to the basement membrane

gap junction

lets neighboring cells exhange small molecules

tight junction

prevents materials from crossing an epithelium

endocrine glands

secrete hormones into the intestitial fluid

exocrine glands

secrete hormones onto epithelial surfaces through ducts

brown fat is

highely vascular


a frameworc of conective tissue

superficial fascia

between skin and under laying organ

deep fascia

dens connective tissue that surrounds muscle and binds to tendon

subserous fascia

between serous membrane and deep fascia

epidermis is composed of

epithelial tissue

what protects the skin from sunlight

the melanin in keratinocytes


the stratum cornia just under the free edge of a nail


the white cresent shaped area on the base of the nail


the thickend layer of skin surrounding finger nails and toe nails

nail root

where the nail growth begins


a colorless skin that is constantly shed from the underside

what happens to aging skin

a decrease in the number of sweat glands

where are blood vessels located

in the perimetrium

why does the skeletal muscle fibers have many nuclei

to have the ability to produce nutrients for muscle contractions

the heart and blood vessles are lined by

simple squamous epithelium

the dominant fiber type in dense conective tissue is



outer most layer of skin


inner(middle) layer of skin


the lower most layer of the skin (subcutanius layer)

types of tissue

epithelial connective muscle

what type of connective tissue is found in the trachea and ribs

hyaline cartalage

with sickle cell anemia

a gene for adult hemoglobin is abnormal

at high sea levels a drop in oxygen levels will

increase the hematocrit levels

fast muscle fibers can adapt to aerobic metabolism by generating more
mithocondrian response to

repeted, axhaustive stimulation

what hapens to skeletal muscle when there is a block an Ach reseptors

it reduces the muscles ability to contract

you have just gotten a papper cut. its painful, but does not bleed.
how far does the cut go

because there is no blood it only penetrated the epidermis

glands in the skin

sebacuous gland, sweat gland

how does the skin react to heat

blood vessles dialate, skin reddens
sweat glands activate to cool skin

where is keratinocytes found

in the epidermis

the pancreas secretes

exocrine and exocrine secretions

whatv type of cell makes up almost half of the blood volume


unlike cartalage, bone

is highly vascular

the function of red blood cells

carry oxygen to the cells then
carry carbon dioxide away

what happens yo some vegans

the develop a vitamin B12 deficiency

characteristics of epidermis include

multilayerd contains desmosomes flexible
serves as UV radiation protaction

UV increases the production of


accessory structures of the skin include

hair follicles sebaceous glands sweat
glands nails

the highest concentration of merocrine swear glands is found

on the palms of the hand