anatomy and physiology ch 1 review

anatomy

What is the study of structure?

physiology

What is the study of function?

Form dictates function

What is the principle of complementarity?

Organism � organ systems � organs � tissues � cells - chemical

What are the levels of organization from complex to simple?

cell

What is the basic unit of life?

endocrine

What system secretes hormones and regulates blood processes? (This is
an example of 1 of 11 systems)

Pituitary gland, pineal gland

Name two organs from this system: pick two � eg.

movement

Which function of life is missing from the list? Maintaining
boundaries � responsiveness � digestion � metabolism � excretion -
reproduction � growth:

anabolic

When a dehydration reaction joins two amino acids to form a
dipeptide, what type of metabolism has occurred?

catabolic

Glucose molecules are hydrolyzed (split off) from a chain of
glycogen. What type of metabolism has occurred?

water

What is the most critical nutrient?

oxygen, body temperature, atmospheric pressure

Name three survival needs, besides nutrients:

homeostasis

Maintaining a relatively stable internal environment despite
continuous outside changes is called

Receptor � control center - effector

What are the three steps involved in homeostatic control mechanisms?

negative

What type of feedback is normally used by the body for homeostasis?

Labor and blood clotting

Give two examples of positive feedback that is normal.

negative

After a meal the body�s blood glucose levels rise. In response, the
pancreas secretes insulin into the blood to help transfer the glucose
into the cells. What type of feedback mechanism occurred?

mental

Chin:

pollex

Thumb:

axillary

Under arm:

antebrachial

Forearm:

popliteal

Back of the knee:

olecranal

Elbow:

cephalic

Head:

buccal

Cheek:

manus

Hand:

tarsal

Ankle:

carpal

Wrist:

cervical

Neck:

femoral

Thigh:

sural

Calf:

Anatomical position

What position is important when using anatomical directions?

superior

The cervical region is _____________ to the umbilical region.

lateral

The pollex region is _____________ to the 5th (pinky) digit.

anterior

The abdominal region is _____________ to the lumbar region.

superficial

The skin is ________________ to the muscle layer.

proximal, distal

The elbow is ______to the wrist, but ______to the shoulder.

frontal

Which plane divides the body into anterior and posterior parts?

midsagittal

Which plane divides the body into equal right and left halves?

thoracic

Which cavity contains the heart and lungs?

pleural.

Which cavity contains the lungs?

Vertebral or spinal

Which cavity contains the spinal cord?

ventral

Which cavity contains the diaphragm?

Abdominopelvic or abdominal

Which cavity is directly inferior to the thoracic cavity (2 possibilities)?

pleura-lungs, pericardium � heart, peritoneum � abdominal organs

Name the 3 serous membranes and what they contain:

visceral

What is the name for the inner layer of a serous membrane?

epigastric

What abdominopelvic region medial to the left hypochondriac region?

epigastric

What abdominopelvic region is superior to the umbilical region?

Right upper quadrant

What abdominopelvic quadrant contains most of the liver and the gallbladder?