Eye Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards


structure that blocks external debris and helps lubricate eye

Blink reflex

semi-autonomous way to block foreign bodies from entering the eye;
assisted by the eyelashes

Tear Duct

small openings that drain tears into the nasal cavity

Lacrimal gland

release tears onto surface of eye


Supports and protects the eye; makes up most of outer layer and optic nerve
"white of eye

Sclera (diagram)


hairs that help block debris from entering eye


Dome shaped and clear, this structure covers the pupil, iris, and
anterior chamber
protects the iris and pupil
provides much of the eye's focusing power

Cornea (diagram)

structure labelled A

Meibomian Glands

found at rim of eyelids ; produce oily substance that helps prevent
evaporation of tear film.


Lines the inside of the upper and lower eyelids
Continuous with the cornea
Lies on top of sclera


small hole that controls how much light enters your eye


Controls the size of the pupil


Focuses the light that enters your eye

Lens Diagram

Structure labelled F

Suspensory ligaments

Connect the ciliary muscles to the crystalline lens

Anterior Chamber

Acts as a channel for the aqueous humor to travel through
located between the iris and the inner layer of the cornea

Diagram of anterior chamber

Structure labelled F

Aqueous humor

contains electrolytes, ascorbic acid, and amino acids
provides nutrients and oxygen
helps maintain pressure and keep anterior and posterior chamber inflated

ciliary body

controls the shape of the crystalline lens and produces the aqueous humor
circular in shape, it separates the posterior chamber from the vitreous

Ciliary body diagram

structure labelled H


Clear gel that exerts pressure on the inside of the eye
function of this pressure is to keep retinal layers tightly pressed together

Vitreous diagram

Structure labelled E


highly sensitive circular area that is responsible for providing
detail and color to your vision in bright light conditions
part of retina that produces central vision
structure of eye that is used to detect detail and reading/close work


Part of the retina that provides sharp and accurate color vision
small dip in the retina at the center of the macula


Layer of photosensitive cells that process and convert light energy
into electrical signals. The signals are then transmitted to brain
through optic nerve and interpreted as images.

Optic disc

optic nerve head; beginning and innermost section of optic nerve in retina
has no photoreceptors
does not react to light

optic nerve

transmits impulses received from retina to the visual cortex in the
brain, forming an image in our minds


Greater sensitivity to dim light
helps you see in dark
not sensitive to color


found mainly in fovea
responsible for color vision in bright light
helps you see detail and color in day

Diagram of iris

structure labelled E

Diagram of pupil

Structure labelled C

Diagram of vitreous humor

Structure labelled K

Diagram of Retina

Structure labelled C

Diagram of Optic nerve

Structure labelled D