Human Anatomy & Physiology: Festival 6 (Urinary and Acid, Base, Fluid Balance) Flashcards

True or False:
Obligatory water reabsorption involves the movement of water along
an osmotic gradient.

TRUE

True or False:
Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process.

FALSE

Where does antidiuretic hormone (ADH) exert its effects to promote
water reabsorption?
descending limb of the nephron loop
collecting duct
ascending limb of the nephron loop
distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

Collecting duct

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule
to water is due to a(n) ________.
increase in the production of aldosterone decrease in the
concentration of the blood plasma decrease in the production of
ADH increase in the production of ADH

Increase in the production of ADH

In what part of the renal tubule are aquaporins scarce or absent so
that water CANNOT be reabsorbed?
descending limb of the nephron loop proximal convoluted
tubule (PCT) collecting duct ascending limb of the
nephron loop

Ascending limb of the nephron loop

What is the largest component of urine by weight, other than water?
creatine salt phosphates urea

Urea

True or False:
The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that
attaches to the collecting duct.

FALSE

Where is filtrate produced in the nephron?
vasa recta peritubular capillaries glomerulus
juxtaglomerular complex

Glomerulus

Which pressure is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of
the blood and across the filtration membrane of the glomerulus?
colloid osmotic pressure in the capsular space
colloid osmotic pressure in glomerular capillaries (OPgc)
hydrostatic pressure in the capsular space (HPcs)
hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries (HPgc)

hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries (HPgc)

Where in the nephron does most solute reabsorption occur?
proximal convoluted tubule distal convoluted tubule
glomerulus collecting duct

Proximal convoluted tubule

The macula densa cells respond to ________.
changes in pressure in the tubule aldosterone
antidiuretic hormone changes in solute content of the filtrate

changes in solute content of the filtrate

What two structures constitute the renal corpuscle?
glomerulus and renal tubule
renal tubule and collecting duct
proximal convoluted tubule and nephron loop
glomerulus and glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

glomerulus and glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

True or False:
Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim
sodium ions from the filtrate.

TRUE

True or False:
Under normal conditions, the proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs
all of the glucose, lactate, and amino acids in the filtrate and 65%
of the Na+ and water.

TRUE

Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
podocyte cells granular cells mesangial cells
macula densa

Podocyte cells

Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators
of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?
angiotensin I and epinephrine angiotensin II and ADH
angiotensin II and aldosterone angiotensin I and atrial
natriuretic peptide

angiotensin II and aldosterone

True or False :
In the kidneys, the countercurrent mechanism involves the
interaction between the flow of filtrate through the loop of Henle of
the juxtamedullary nephrons (the countercurrent multiplier) and the
flow of blood through the limbs of adjacent blood vessels (the
countercurrent exchanger). This relationship establishes and maintains
an osmotic gradient extending from the cortex through the depths of
the medulla that allows the kidneys to vary urine concentration
dramatically. True False

TRUE

True or False :
Atrial naturetic peptide inhibits sodium reabsorption.

TRUE

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.
has a basement membrane
has a blood pressure much lower than otherorgan systems
is drained by an efferent arteriole
is impermeable to most substances

is drained by an efferent arteriole

The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma
except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________.
glucose electrolytes hormones plasma protein

Plasma protein

True or False:
The collecting duct is impermeable to water in the presence of ADH.

FALSE

True or False:
Blood in the urine may be a symptom of bladder cancer.

TRUE

True or False:
Despite the fact that the kidney's intrinsic controls work to
maintain a constant GFR, in some situations the body's extrinsic
controls will work to override these intrinsic controls in order to
maintain systemic blood pressure.

TRUE

Approximately 80% of the energy used for active transport is devoted
to the reabsorption of __________.
glucose potassium sodium water

Sodium

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.
when the specific gravity of urine rises above 1.10
when the peritubular capillaries are dilated
when the pH of the urine decreases
by a decrease in the blood pressure

By a decrease in the blood pressure

What is the effect of hyperventilation on pH?
metabolic alkalosis respiratory alkalosis metabolic
acidosis respiratory acidosis

Respiratory alkalosis

True or False:
The single most important blood buffer system is the bicarbonate
buffer system.

TRUE

True or False:
As ventilation increases and more carbon dioxide is removed from the
blood, the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood decreases.

TRUE

True or False:
The normal pH of blood is 7.35-7.45.

TRUE

Which chemical buffer system is the only important system in the
extracellular fluid (ECF) that resists short-term changes in pH?
physiological buffering systems protein buffer system
bicarbonate buffer system phosphate buffer system

Bicarbonate buffer system

Which age group most commonly has fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base
balance issues?
the elderly infants growing children young adults

Infants

Which of the following is NOT involved in triggering the thirst mechanism?
increase in blood pressure decrease in blood volume
osmoreceptors detect increased osmolality dry mouth

Increase in blood pressure

Select the person in the following list who would have the highest
percentage of water in his or her body.
a 25-year-old overweight female a 80-year-old man of average
weight a 25-year-old male of average weight a 6-month-old
baby boy

a 6 month old baby boy

In a given day, what is the typical value for water intake?
1500 ml 750 ml 250 mL 2500 ml

2500 ml

What solute in body fluids determines most of their chemical and
physical reactions?
glucose electrolytes nonelectrolytes water

Electrolytes

A patient's anxiety caused her to develop respiratory alkalosis. What
breathing technique did the nurse recommend, and why?
The nurse instructed the patient to breathe faster and deeper. This
will decrease the patient's blood levels of carbon dioxide by
eliminating more carbon dioxide from the lungs, resulting in a
decrease in the blood pH.
The nurse instructed the patient to breathe more shallowly. This
will decrease the patient's blood levels of carbon dioxide by
eliminating more carbon dioxide from the lungs, resulting in a
decrease in the blood pH.
The nurse instructed the patient to breathe slower and deeper, and
to breathe into a paper bag. This will increase the patient's blood
level of carbon dioxide by eliminating less carbon dioxide from the
lungs, and by breathing in the expired air which has a higher
concentration of carbon dioxide. As a result, the blood pH will decrease.
The nurse instructed the patient to breathe faster and deeper. This
will increase the patient's blood levels of carbon dioxide by
eliminating less carbon dioxide from the lungs, resulting in a
decrease in the blood pH.

The nurse instructed the patient to breathe slower and deeper, and to
breathe into a paper bag. This will increase the patient's blood level
of carbon dioxide by eliminating less carbon dioxide from the lungs,
and by breathing in the expired air which has a higher concentration
of carbon dioxide. As a result, the blood pH will decrease.

Which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen
ion concentration in blood?
diet chemical buffer systems renal mechanism
respiratory changes

Diet

A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide
due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates ________.
respiratory alkalosis respiratory acidosis metabolic
alkalosis metabolic acidosis

Respiratory acidosis

The fluid that bathes the cells found in tissues is called __________.
electrolytic fluid interstitial fluid intracellular
fluid plasma

Interstitial fluid

How much water is generated per day from cellular metabolism?
2500 ml 750 ml 1500 ml 250 ml

250 ml

The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ________ buffer system.
hemoglobin protein phosphate bicarbonate

Bicarbonate

Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system?
phosphate nucleic acid protein bicarbonate

Nucleic acid

The most important renal mechanism for regulating acid-base balance
of the blood involves __________.
maintaining water balance maintaining phosphate balance
maintaining HCO3- balance. maintaining CO2 balance

maintaining HCO3- balance.

The most common cause of acid-base imbalance is __________.
respiratory acidosis respiratory alkalosis metabolic
acidosis metabolic alkalosis

Respiratory acidosis

A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an
abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis?
respiratory alkalosis respiratory acidosis metabolic
alkalosis metabolic acidosis

Metabolic alkalosis

What is the most common cation found in the interstitial fluid?
HPO42- Na+ Cl- K+

Na+

Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing
rapidly. Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the
following is most likely?
respiratory alkalosis metabolic alkalosis metabolic
acidosis respiratory acidosis

Metabolic acidosis

The term hypotonic hydration refers to ________.
a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking
extraordinary amounts of water
the unpleasant feeling people have after drinking too much liquor
the feeling one might have after profuse sweating with exertion
a condition that is caused by high levels of sodium in the
extracellular fluid compartment

a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking
extraordinary amounts of water

True or False:
The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is sodium.

FALSE

What accounts for the route through which most fluid is lost in a day?
sweat insensible loss through skin and lungs feces urine

Urine

The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________.
myogenic mechanism glomerular hydrostatic pressure
colloid osmotic pressure of the blood capsular hydrostatic pressure

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure

True or False:
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HPg) is the chief force pushing
water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane.

TRUE

True or False:
In the absence of hormones, the distal tubule and collecting ducts
are relatively impermeable to water.

TRUE

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.
inhibits the release of ADH is not reabsorbed by the tubule
cells increases secretion of ADH increases the rate of
glomerular filtration

Inhibits the release of ADH

What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
a system for concentrating urine
a system for diluting urine
a system that regulates the rate of filtrate formation and systemic
blood pressure
a system that protects the nephron from some chemicals found in blood

a system that regulates the rate of filtrate formation and systemic
blood pressure

What is the function of the macula densa cells of the juxtaglomerular
complex (JGC)?
The macula densa cells pass regulatory signals between the
extraglomerular mesangial cells.
The macula densa cells produce filtrate.
The macula densa cells monitor the NaCl content of the filtrate
entering the distal convoluted tubule.
The macula densa cells sense blood pressure in the afferent arteriole.

The macula densa cells monitor the NaCl content of the filtrate
entering the distal convoluted tubule.

Which of the following is the functional unit of the kidney?
renal pyramid renal corpuscle renal pelvis nephron

Nephron

True or False:
The entire responsibility for urine formation lies with the nephron.

TRUE

Which of the following is NOT a major urine formation process?
glomerular filtration micturition tubular
secretion tubular reabsorption

Micturition

In which kidney region are all renal corpuscles located?
renal medulla renal pelvis renal columns renal cortex

Renal cortex

What vessel directly feeds into the glomerulus?
efferent arteriole vasa recta afferent arteriole
cortical radiate artery

Afferent arteriole

What region subdivides to form two or three major calyces and several
minor calyces? Select from letters A-D.
A B C D

C

True or False:
Prolonged hyperventilation can cause alkalosis.

TRUE

Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most
________ is found in the intracellular fluid.
potassium bicarbonate iron chloride

Potassium

What type of water imbalance increases the amount of fluid in all compartments?
dehydration hypotonic hydration edema inflammation

hypotonic hydration

What receptors does the brain use to detect changes in osmolality?
baroreceptors chemoreceptors thermoreceptors osmoreceptors

Osmoreceptors

True or False:
Respiratory acidosis results when lungs are obstructed and gas
exchange is inefficient.

TRUE

The body's water volume is closely tied to a powerful water
"magnet." What magnet is referred to here?
water level in the intracellular compartment ionic
potassium ionic sodium water level in the extracellular compartment

Ionic sodium

Where is the majority of water stored in the human body?
interstitial fluid (IF) extracellular fluid (ECF)
compartment plasma intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment

intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment

Respiratory acidosis can occur when ________.
a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction
the kidneys secrete hydrogen ions
a runner has completed a very long marathon
a person consumes excessive amounts of antacids

a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction

The role of ADH is to __________.
decrease water reabsorption lower blood pressure produce
dilute urine increase water reabsorption

Increase water reabsorption

True and False:
Potassium balance is controlled mainly by renal mechanisms.

TRUE