Human Anatomy & Physiology: Festival 5 (Digestive and Metabolism) Flashcards

Which vessel delivers nutrient-rich blood to the liver from the
digestive tract?
hepatic vein hepatic portal vein inferior vena
cava central vein

Hepatic portal vein

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in
place are called ________.
mucosal lining serosal lining lamina propria mesenteries


Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion?
gastric cephalic intestinal enterogastric


Saliva does NOT __________.
clean the mouth aid in the chemical digestion of
proteins contain carbohydrate-dissolving enzymes dissolve
food chemicals so that they can be tasted

aid in the chemical digestion of proteins

The __________ guards the entry of food into the stomach.
diaphragm pyloric sphincter ileocecal valve
cardiac sphincter

cardiac sphincter

What structural modification of the small intestine slows the
movement of chyme through the lumen?
microvilli circular folds lacteals villi

Circular folds

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity
are located ________.
in the walls of the tract organs in the pons and medulla
in the glandular tissue that lines the organ lumen in the oral cavity

in the walls of the tract organs

What muscle forms the labia of the mouth?
zygomaticus orbicularis oris orbicularis oculi buccinator

Orbicularis oris

Most digestion and absorption of nutrients occur in the __________.
large intestine liver stomach small intestine

Small intestine

The __________ is the serous membrane that lines the abdominal body wall.
mesentery omenta visceral peritoneum parietal peritoneum

Parietal peritoneum

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by
increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the
following accomplish this task?
plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli the rugae and
haustra the vast array of digestive enzymes Brunner's
glands and Peyer Patches

plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli

Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler
compounds by the process of ________.
fermentation anabolism mastication catabolism


How would you classify chewing food?
ingestion digestion mechanical breakdown propulsion

Mechanical breakdown

Chyme is created in the ________.
esophagus mouth stomach small intestine


The innermost tissue layer of the alimentary canal is the __________.
serosa mucosa muscularis submucosa


In a patient suffering from a gastric ulcer caused by Helicobacter
pylori, the cells most likely to have been damaged first are the ______.
enteroendocrine cells parietal cells chief cells
mucous cells

Mucous cells

True or False:
When swallowing, the epiglottis prevents food from entering the larynx.


True or False:
All the chemical and mechanical phases of digestion from the mouth
through the small intestine are directed toward changing food into
forms that can pass through the epithelial cells lining the mucosa
into the underlying blood and lymphatic vessels.


Which teeth are best suited for cutting or nipping off pieces of food
in the permanent dentition?
canines premolars (bicuspids) molars incisors


The major means of propelling food through the digestive tract is __________.
swallowing peristalsis segmentation churning


From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the
alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange
them in order from the lumen.
serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa
muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic
juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?
secretin cholecystokinin gastric inhibitor peptide gastrin


The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________.
ingestion absorption digestion secretion


True or False:
The peritoneum is the most extensive serous membrane in the body.


Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the
stomach mucosal barrier?
replacing of damaged epithelial mucosa cells
production of intrinsic factor
thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus
tight junctions of epithelial mucosa cells

production of intrinsic factor

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the stomach?
The stomach produces a double-layered coat of alkaline mucus.
The stomach has three layers of muscle in the muscularis tunic.
The stomach mucosa is folded into rugae.
The stomach releases enzymes to digest carbohydrates.

The stomach releases enzymes to digest carbohydrates.

If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an
obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.
mucosa submucosa muscularis externa serosa


There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase
occurs ________.
at the end of a large meal, and the juices secreted are powerful and
remain in the GI tract for a long period of time
when the meal is excessively high in acids and neutralization is required
immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small
intestine for the influx of a variety of nutrients
before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.
goblet cells of the small intestine parietal cells of the
duodenum Brunner's glands chief cells of the stomach

Chief cells of the stomach

What role of the stomach is essential to life?
production of intrinsic factor production of chyme
production of VIP production of hydrochloric acid

Production of intrinsic factor

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
K B12 A C


Which major process involves the elimination of indigestible
substances from the body via the anus?
mechanical breakdown defecation ingestion absorption


What is the major digestive function of the pancreas?
production of digestive enzymes production of glucagon
production of insulin production of bicarbonate ions

Production of digestive enzymes

How are wisdom teeth (third molars) classified?
milk teeth incisors primary teeth permanent teeth

Permanent teeth

Which layer of the alimentary canal contains the nerve supply of the
enteric neurons that regulate digestive system activity?
submucosa muscularis externa mucosa serosa


The mucosa collapses inward when the stomach is empty, forming large
folds known as __________.
cardia fundus rugae pylorus


What is a major function of pancreatic juice?
emulsifying fats by breaking them into smaller pieces
neutralizing chyme entering the small intestine from the stomach
acidifying the contents of the small intestine
acidifying the contents of the stomach

neutralizing chyme entering the small intestine from the stomach

Which chemical activates the transformation of trypsinogen to trypsin?
chymotrypsin amylase enteropeptidase carboxypeptidase


True or False:
When swallowing, the epiglottis prevents food from entering the larynx.


Which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria?
glycolysis Krebs cycle formation of malic acid from
fumaric acid electron transport


Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of
complete proteins?
corn, cottonseed oil, soy oil, and wheat germ
eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish
egg yolk, fish roe, and grains
lima beans, kidney beans, nuts, and cereals

Eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish

__________ is the key hormone regulator of the absorptive state.
Glucagon Cortisol Insulin Parathyroid hormone


True or False:
The body is able to form glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors.


Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy
per gram when metabolized?
fats proteins foods and beverages high in caffeine
vitamins and minerals


True or False:
The primary function of carbohydrates is energy production within cells.


When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the
urine is mostly________.
acetyl CoA urea ammonia ketone bodies


Glycolysis occurs in the __________ of cells and is an __________ process.
mitochondria; aerobic cytosol; anaerobic cytosol;
aerobic mitochondria; anaerobic

Cytosol; anaerobic

True or False:
The preferred energy fuel for the brain is fat.


True or False:
Cellular respiration is an anabolic process.


Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________.
brain muscles blood liver


True or False:
It would not be healthy to eliminate all fats from your
diet because they serve a useful purpose in maintaining the body.


Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during
cellular respiration?
oxidative phosphorylation lactic acid production
oxidation reactions substrate-level phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation

As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive
state, only the ________ continues to burn glucose while every other
organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids.
spleen brain pancreas liver


Which term describes the breakdown of stored fats into glycerol and
fatty acids?
lipolysis beta oxidation lipogenesis ketogenesis


Which nutrient molecule is the pivotal fuel molecule in the oxidative pathways?
glucose cholesterol fat protein


Which of the following is NOT a pathway in the oxidation of glucose?
Krebs cycle gluconeogenesis electron transport chain and
oxidative phosphorylation glycolysis


__________ are considered "bad" cholesterol; high blood
levels are believed to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
HDLs LDLs Chylomicrons VLDLs


True or False :
There are no complete proteins. All animal products should
be eaten with plant material to make a complete protein.


Which of the following is a water-soluble vitamin?
vitamin A vitamin B vitamin K vitamin D

Vitamin B

The term metabolism is best defined as ________.
the number of calories it takes to keep from shivering on a cold day
the length of time it takes to digest and absorb fats
the sum of biochemical reactions involved in building and breaking
down molecules
a measure of carbohydrate utilization, typically involving
measurement of calories

the sum of biochemical reactions involved in building and breaking
down molecules

Which nutrients function as coenzymes and are needed in only small amounts?
electrolytes vitamins carbohydrates minerals


What is the primary function of cellular respiration - its end-purpose?
to oxidize glucose to metabolize nutrients to produce
proteins to generate ATP

To generate ATP

Which of the following would decrease body temperature?
shivering eating a large meal enhanced thyroxine
release dilation of cutaneous blood vessels

Dilation of cutaneous blood vessels

True or False:
The increased use of noncarbohydrate molecules for energy to
conserve glucose is called glucose sparing.