Human Anatomy & Physiology: Festival 1 (Endocrine & Blood) Flashcards

True or False:
Positive chemotaxis is a feedback system that signals leukocyte
migration into damaged areas.

TRUE

Which of the choices below is the parent cell for all formed elements
of blood?
polymorphonuclear cell
megakaryocyte
hemocytoblast
normoblast

hemocytoblast

Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?
neural
hormonal
enzyme
humoral

enzyme

When we take anti-histamines, we are countering the effects of which
type of leukocyte?
neutrophils
eosinophils
lymphocytes
basophils

basophils

The main protein in blood plasma is ______
albumin
hemoglobin
plasmin
erythropoietin

albumin

Which of the following hormones helps the body avoid dehydration and
water overload?
thyroid-stimulating hormone
antidiuretic hormone
follicle-stimulating hormone
oxytocin

antidiuretic hormone

One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems
directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients.
Which of the following describes this mechanism?
carbohydrate oxidation
catabolic inhibition
protein synthesis
humoral stimulation

humoral stimulation

Which of the following occurs in situations where more than one
hormone produces the same effects at the target cell and their
combined effects are amplified?
summation
synergism
permissiveness
antagonism

synergism

True or False:
Each hemoglobin molecule can transport two molecules of oxygen.

FALSE

What gland secretes growth hormone?
thyroid gland
adrenal cortex
posterior pituitary (lobe)
anterior pituitary (lobe)

anterior pituitary (lobe)

True or False:
Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxine.

TRUE

Hypersecretion of what hormone can produce the effects of gigantism
(individual in the center of this image)?
aldosterone
growth hormone (GH)
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
thyroid hormones (TH)

growth hormone (GH)

What part of the pathway to produce platelets is shared with other
formed elements?
megakaryoblast
hematopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast)
lymphoid stem cell
reticulocyte

hematopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast)

What do the lymphoid stem cells give rise to?
lymphocytes
granulocytes
erythrocytes
monocytes

lymphocytes

What part of the body does erythropoietin (EPO) target to increase erythropoiesis?
kidneys
bone marrow
lungs
liver

bone marrow

Which hormone is the body's major metabolic hormone?
adrenocorticotropic hormone
thyroid hormone
antidiuretic hormone
parathyroid hormone

thyroid hormone

True or False:
The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person
has a high metabolic rate is the parathyroid.

FALSE

What is the primary function of hormones?
cause allergic reactions
influence metabolic activity of glands by electrochemical impulses
alter cell activity
activate extracellular enzymes

alter cell activity

True or False:
Diapedesis is the process by which red blood cells move into
tissue spaces from the interior of blood capillaries.

FALSE

Hormones that regulate the secretory action of other endocrine glands
are called ________
somatotropin
tropins
GHIH
somatostatins

tropins

True or False:
Direct gene activation involves a second-messenger system.

FALSE

Which of the following hormones mainly serves to stimulate milk
production by the breasts?
prolactin
follicle-stimulating hormone
adrenocorticotropic hormone
thyroid-stimulating hormone

prolactin

Which of the following is characteristic of all leukocytes?
They are nucleated.
They have cytoplasmic granules.
They are phagocytic.
They are the most numerous of the formed elements in blood.

They are nucleated.

Which type of leukocyte is responsible for antibody production?
basophils
monocytes
eosinophils
lymphocytes

lymphocytes

True or False:
Oxytocin and ADH are produced in the posterior pituitary.

FALSE

Which of the following is a hormone produced by the posterior pituitary?
oxytocin
ADH
HGH
none of these

none of these

The majority of whole blood is ______
platelets
plasma
erythrocytes
erythrocytes
leukocytes

plasma

Which of the formed elements contains hemoglobin and transports
respiratory gases?
erythrocytes
agranular leukocytes
platelets
granular leukocytes

erythrocytes

What is required for the production of anterior pituitary gland hormones?
neural stimuli (from the sympathetic division of the ANS)
hormonal stimuli
humoral stimuli
all of these

hormonal stimuli

Which of the following is NOT a function of blood?
distribution
regulation
hormone production
protection

hormone production

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence
of a hormone is dependent on ______.
the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ
the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the
circulatory path
nothing- all hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any
and all cell types because hormones are powerful and nonspecific
the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the
target tissue or organ

the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target
tissue or organ

What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?
kidney
brain
liver
pancreas

kidney

Which of the following hormones stimulates the adrenal cortex to
release glucocorticoids that help the body resist stressors?
thyroid-stimulating hormone
follicle-stimulating hormone
prolactin
adrenocorticotropic hormone

adrenocorticotropic hormone

On a blood smear slide prepared using Wright's stain, you observe a
large cell with a U-shaped nucleus and pale blue cytoplasm. This cell
is most likely a(n) _______
eosinophil
basophil
monocyte
lymphocyte

monocyte

Which of the following is correctly matched?
aplastic anemia: results from excessive blood loss
hemolytic anemia: results from inadequate iron intake
hemorrhagic anemia: red blood cells rupture
pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency

pernicious anemia: results from B12 deficiency

Which of the following is not a type of hormone interaction?
permissiveness
antagonism
feedback
synergism

feedback

Which letter represents the adrenal glands? Select from letters A-D.
A
B
C
D

C

What is the name of the protein found in erythrocytes that allows for
respiratory gas transport?
albumin
fibrinogen
hemoglobin
antibodies

hemoglobin

True or False:
Hemorrhagic anemias result from blood loss.

TRUE

Where is thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) made? Select from
letters A-D
A
B
C
D

A

______ is the situation when one hormone cannot exert its full
effects without another hormone being present.
Antagonism
Synergism
Activism
Permissiveness

Permissiveness

The most abundant leukocytes are __________.
basophils
monocytes
neutrophils
lymphocytes

neutrophils

What is the average normal pH range of blood?
7.75-7.85
4.65-4.75
8.35-8.45
7.35-7.45

7.35-7.45

Platelets __________.
stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break
have a life span of about 120 days
have multiple nuclei
are the precursors of leukocytes

stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break

Which of the following glands is found atop the kidneys?
pituitary
adrenal
parathyroid
thyroid

adrenal

In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased
levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the
synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target
organ. This is known as ________.
sensitivity increase
up-regulation
a stressor reaction
cellular affinity

up-regulation

Which of the following is not a distribution function of blood?
transport of hormones to their target organs
transport of metabolic wastes from cells
delivery of oxygen to body cells
transport of salts to maintain blood volume

transport of salts to maintain blood volume

What is hematocrit a measure of?
Hematocrit is the percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample.
Hematocrit is the percentage of leukocytes and platelets in a
whole blood sample.
Hematocrit is the percentage of plasma in a whole blood sample.
Hematocrit is the percentage of formed elements in a whole blood sample.

Hematocrit is the percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample.

Bilirubin is cleared from the body by _________.
the spleen
the kidneys
the liver
the pancreas

the liver

When oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, what bright red molecule is formed?
hematocrit
oxyhemoglobin
carbaminohemoglobin
deoxyhemoglobin

oxyhemoglobin

What do the lymphoid stem cells give rise to?
monocytes
lymphocytes
erythrocytes
granulocytes

lymphocytes

True or False:
Both "turn on" factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural
stimuli) and "turn off" factors (feedback inhibition and
others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system.

TRUE

What triggers erythropoietin (EPO) production to make new red blood cells?
reduced availability of oxygen
excess of oxygen in the bloodstream
too many erythrocytes
too many platelets

reduced availability of oxygen

Where are the hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
stored? Select from letters A-D.
A
B
C
D

C

Which of the following is true of the structure of an erythrocyte?
Erythrocytes are shaped like biconcave discs.
Erythrocytes are nucleated cells.
Erythrocytes are a fixed shape and cannot change shape.
Erythrocytes are cell fragments.

Erythrocytes are shaped like biconcave discs.

What hormone released into the blood (shown by letter D) by the
posterior pituitary inhibits or prevents urine formation?
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
cortisol
oxytocin
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Steroid hormones exert their action by _______.
binding cell receptors and initiating cAMP activity
entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the
expression of a gene
activating the hypothalamic release of regulating hormones
entering the cell and activating mitochondrial DNA

entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the
expression of a gene

True or False:
Up-regulation involves the loss of receptors and prevents the
target cells from overreacting to persistently high hormone levels.

FALSE

Which of the following is a protective function of blood?
prevention of blood loss
maintenance of adequate fluid volume
maintenance of normal pH in body tissue
maintenance of body temperature

prevention of blood loss

True or False:
The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is the bone
marrow in the shafts of the long bones.

FALSE

True or False:
Hemorrhagic anemias results from blood loss.

TRUE

Which of the following is NOT a major type of stimulus that triggers
endocrine glands to manufacture and release hormones?
neural
humoral
enzymatic
hormonal

enzymatic

Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis?
moving to a lower altitude
hypoxia of EPO-producing cells
an increased number of RBCs
decreased tissue demand for oxygen

hypoxia of EPO-producing cells

At what point does the receptor-hormone complex bind to DNA? Select
from letters A-D.
A
B
C
D

C

True or False:
Hormones are long-distance chemical signals that travel in blood
or lymph throughout the body.

TRUE

The ________ is the fluid portion of the blood.
hemoglobin
plasma
buffy coat
hematocrit

plasma

True or False:
Major hormones circulate to virtually all tissues.

TRUE

True or False:
Growth hormone solely exerts its influence by targeting other
endocrine glands to produce hormones.

FALSE

Which leukocyte functions in phagocytizing bacteria?
lymphocyte
neutrophil
eosinophil
basophil

neutrophil

Which of the following is NOT an endocrine gland?
adenoid
adrenal
pituitary
thyroid

adenoid

The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________.
binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G
proteins and cAMP
synthesizing more than one hormone at a time
altering gene expression in the nuclear DNA
increasing the basal metabolic rate in the target organ

binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G
proteins and cAMP

Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their
effects through intracellular ________.
calcium
second messengers
deactivating ions
nucleotides

second messengers

Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a
manner similar to ________.
steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
insulin, because insulin is a small peptide
glucagon, because the structure of glucagon is similar to that of
thyroid hormone
growth hormone, because the thyroid works synergistically with
thyroid hormone

steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells

Which hypothalamic hormone stimulates the release of growth hormone
from the anterior pituitary (lobe)?
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)

Identify the thyroid gland. Select from letters A-D.
A
B
C
D

A

Which of the following is true about blood plasma?
It contains about 20 dissolved components.
It is about 90% water.
It is the same as serum but without the clotting proteins.
The main protein component is hemoglobin.

It is about 90% water.

ADH ________.
promotes dehydration
increases urine production
is produced in the adenohypophysis
is inhibited by alcohol

is inhibited by alcohol

The first step in hemostasis is __________.
vascular spasm
platelet plug formation
fibrin production
coagulation

vascular spasm