The peripheral nervous system includes?
All the neural structures outside the brain and spinal cord; provides
a link to the outside world
What are exteroceptors?
Neuro receptors outside the body
What are interoceptors?
Neuro receptors inside the body (usually involuntary)
What are proprioceptors?
Neuro receptors within organs (visceral - muscles, joints, tendons,
ligaments - informs the brain of movements)
What are the 2 divisions of the PNS?
Within the motor (efferent) division of the nervous system, what are
the 2 subdivisions?
Within the autonomic subdivision of the PNS, what are the 2 subdivisions?
The sympathetic system is known as the?
Fight or flight
The parasympathetic system is known as the?
rest and digest
What are sensations defined as?
awareness of stimuli
What are perceptions defined as?
interpretation of meaning of stimuli
Receptors are based on: ______ , _______ , ______.
What are the 5 classifications of PNS receptors?
mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors, nociceptors
Are the special sense are classified as exteroceptors or interceptors?
Thermoreceptors notify the body of temperatures, what area of the
skins feels heat and what are feels cold?
Heat - deeper dermis
Cold - superficial dermis
(T/F) Some pain impulses are blocked by inhibitory endogenous opioids (endorphins).
What is referred pain?
pain from on body region perceived from a different region
ex. left arm pain during heart attack
Label the Nerve Structure:
(T/F) PSN fibers regenerate, CSN fibers don't.
List all the cranial nerves and their function.
olfactory - sensory
optic - sensory
oculomotor - motor
trochlear - motor
trigeminal - both
abducens - motor
facial - both
vestibulocochlear - sensory
glossopharyngeal - both
vagus - both
accessory - motor
hypoglossal - motor
How many nerves are their in the spine:
Cervical? Thoracic? Lumbar? Sacral? Coccygeal?
Cervical - 8
Thoracic - 12
Lumbar - 5
Sacral - 5
Coccygeal - 1
Where does the spinal cord end and what does it become?
L2, cauda equina
What are the 5 parts of the brachial plexus?
(randy travis drinks cold beer)
What are the 5 brachial nerves?
(my aunt rapes my uncle)
Describe the sciatic nerve.
logest and thickest nerve in the body
innervates hamstrings, adductors, leg & foot muscles
What is Hilton's law (meaning)?
any nerve serving a muscle that produces movement at a joint
also innervates joint and skin over joint" (the names are all
What is a dermatome?
an area of skin supplied by nerves from a single spinal root;
destruction of a nerve will not cause numbness because they overlap
What is plexus?
a network of nerves or vessels in the body
What are the 2 types of reflexes?
inborn ( intrinsic) - involuntary
learned (acquired) - voluntary
What are the 5 components of the reflex arc (neural pathway)?
What are the classifications or reflexes (somatic and autonomic)?
somatic - activate skeletal muscles
autonomic - activate smooth and cardiac muscles
(T/F) It is common for there to be an overlap of both the somatic and
autonomic fibers (skeletal muscles and visceral organs).
What is "dual innervation"?
the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems working together
to maintain homeostasis
What is the location of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems?
sympathetic - thoracic lumbar
parasympathetic - cranial sacral
Which had long postganglianic fibers and short preganglianic fibers?
Which has long preganglianic fibers and short postganglianic fibers?
What is sympathetic tone?
blood vessels are kept in a continual state of partial constriction
to to control blood pressure
What is parasympathetic tone?
smooth muscle and glands are regulated
Describe how parasympathetic and sympathetic systems work together
parasympathetic system - responsible for erection of penis and clitoris
sympathetic system - responsible for ejaculation and contraction
(T/F) The hypothalamus controls the sympathetic system.
What is hypertension?
high blood pressure due to overactive sympathetic vasoconstrictor
response to stress
What is autonomic dysreflexia?
uncontrolled activation of the ANS in people with spinal injuries
that skyrockets BP and is life threatening
What is orthostatic hypotension?
low BP associated with aging
What are the 5 special senses?
vision, taste, equilibrium, smell, hearing
What percentage of the body's sensory receptors are in the eye?
What is the lacrimal glands and caruncle?
glands - produces tears
caruncle (corner of eye) - produces oils and sweat
What are the tarsal glands in the eye?
they secrete oil to lubricate the eye
What are the ciliary glands in the eye?
modified sweat glands (infection is called a stye)
What are the conjunctiva in the eye?
the mucous membrane covering on the eye
Muscles of the eye and which CN controls them.
lateral rectus - 6th CN - abducens
superior oblique - 4th CN - trochlear (pulley)
rest (superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior
oblique) - 3rd CN - oculomotor
What is catarac?
cloudiness of lens due to a build up of crystallization proteins
What is glaucoma?
blocked drainage of aqueous humor increases eye pressure, causing
compression if the retina and the optic nerves that leads to blindness
(T/F) There is both visible and nonvisible light (400 - 700nm).
What is myopia?
nearsightedness, the eye is too long, need a concave lense
What is hyperopia?
farsightedness, the eye is too short, need a convex lense
How does the eye focus to see?
accommodation of lenses
constriction of pupils
convergence of eyeball
What is presbyopia?
farsightedness due to aging
Where is the focal point when looking at an image in a normal eye?
one spot on the retina
What are rods?
neurons that allow us to see grey tones, dark light is needed
What are cones?
neurons that allow us to see color, bright light is needed
What is colorblindness?
lack of 1 or more cone pigment
What is nyctalopia?
nighttime blindness", rod degeneration usually from a lack
of vitamin A
What is olfaction and gustation?
olfaction - smell
gustation - taste
What are the 5 basic taste sensations?
sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami
Taste is ___% of smell?
What are the 3 major areas of the ear?
2. middle (tympanic cavity)
3. inner (control equilibrium as well as hearing)
What is the tympanic membrane?
What are the 3 ossicles of the ear?
malleus, incus, stapes
What is sound defined as?
pressure disturbances produced by vibrating objects
(T/F) Sound waves radiate outward in all directions.
What is frequency (sound)?
the number of waves that pass a given point (the shorted the wave
length, the higher the sound frequency)
What is pitch (sound)?
high frequency = high pitch
low frequency = low pitch
What is quality (sound)?
the richness and complexity of sound
What is amplitude (sound)?
the height of the crest - loundness
Why do people get motion sick?
the sensory input doesn't match the visual input - visual is
different from equilibrium
What is conduction deafness and sensorineural deafness?
conduction - blocked sound conduction (impact cerumen)
sensorineural - damage to the cells (the hair can no longer pick up
on vibrations well)
What is tinnitus?
ringing or clicking in the ear, a symptom not condition itself
What is Meziere's Syndrome?
an inner ear disorder that causes vertigo, nausea, headache, tinnitus
(T/F) Chemical senses (tast/smell) decline with aging.
Describe how babies see?
babies are hypertonic - they only see grey tones
their eye movement is uncoordinated
they produce no tears for 2 weeks
What is presbycusis?
loss of high pitch hearing due to aging