Clinical Anatomy and Physiology for Veterinary Technicians: Clinical Applications, Chs. 10 - 18 Flashcards

Endotracheal Intubation

Soft rubber tube is inserted thru glottis & advanced down into
trachea. Purpose is to provide an open airway.
Laryngoscope is used in dogs/cats.

Roaring in Horses

AKA laryngeal hemiplegia. Paralysis of the muscles that tighten the
arytenoid cartilage & vocal cord. Causes partial obstruction of
the glottis;lack of air causes animal to tire quickly, producing
exercise intolerance.

Aspiration Pneumonia

Inhalation of foreign material into the lungs. Commonly caused by
administering oral fluids too quickly for the animal to swallow. Much
easier to prevent than treat.

Tracheal Collapse

Most commonly seen in small/toy dog breeds. When animal inhales, the
smooth muscle gets sucked down into the lumen of the trachea,
partially blocking it, causing a dry, honking cough & difficulty
breathing. Affected dogs are commonly overweight.


Disease that causes the bronchial trees to become overly sensitive to
certain irritants. Bronchoconstriction... wheezing.... dyspnea... allergies...

Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

Common in all animals; affect some combination of the upper
respiratory organs; are less likely to be as threatening as those to
the lower respiratory organs. Productive
cough helps expel excess mucus or inflammatory fluids
from the body. Seriously affects the animal's sense of smell: may
stop eating or drinking, leading to dehydration.


Esophagus that's lost its tone. Myasthenia gravis... esophagus tone
becomes more of a relaxed bag rather than a muscular tube.

Stomach-Related Side Effects

Anything that decreases the stomach's normal ability to repair
itself,such as NSAIDS, etc. Can cause gastric or duodenal ulcers.

Taurine Deficiency in Cats

Results in retinal degeneration, dilated cardiomyopathy, cerebellar
dysfunction, & paresis. Is reversible with nutritional supplementation.


Metabolization of tissues, primarily fat tissues, to compensate for
caloric deficiency. Breath smells like acetone. Is considered primary
if fed an insufficient or unpalatable diet. Is considered secondary if
caused by an illness such as mastitis or metritis. Left abomasum
displacement is the primary cause of secondary.

Kidney Failure

Unable to excrete urea effectively. Buildup of urea in the blood is
uremia and is detected thru the BUN level of a patient.
During protein catabolism, ammonia is produced; converted to urea
in liver.


Radiopaque dyes that show places where the dye didn't flow is a form
of contrast radiography.

Epidural Anesthesia

Have the advantage of decreasing the perception of pain w/o having to
anesthetize the animal.

Dachshund w/Intervertebral Disc Disease

Slipped disc" or rupture of intervertebral disc against
the spinal cord. Paralysis determined at the location of the injury.

Ear Hematomas

Cauliflower ear". Treatment involves surgically draining
& suturing the pinna to hold the skin tight against the cartilage
to prevent fluid from reaccumulating. Not dangerous, but
heavy/swollen, and bothersome to the animal.

Otitis Externa

Common in dogs, cats, rabbits. Caused by mites, foreign bodies,
bacteria, & yeasts. Animal shakes his head from side to side; ear
canal may be red, painful, itchy, and have fluid accumulation. Treat
w/topical medications.


Deficiency of thyroid hormone. Slowing of body metabolism, alopecia,
dry skin, lethargy, reluctance to exercise, & weight gain w/o any
increase in appetite. Mostly occurs in middle aged animals; if it
occurs in young animals, dwarfism and impaired mental function occur
with other common signs.


Most commonly seen in cats. Cellular metabolism is sped up,resulting
in nervousness, excitability, weight loss, increased appetite,
tachycardia, vomiting, diarrhea, PU and PD. Treated by removal of
thyroid gland or long term administration of a thyroid inhibiting drug.


AKA milk fever; affected bovines are called downer cows; in
dogs/cats, it's AKA eclampsia, which causes muscle tremors/spasms that
can lead to seizures if not treated.


AKA Cushing's disease. Signs include PU, PD, and polyphagia., hair
loss,muscle wasting, slow wound healing.


AKA Addison's disease. Signs include weakness, lethargy,
vomiting,diarrhea. Usually progressive leading to circulatory problems
& kidney failure.

Diabetes Mellitus

Insulin deficiency. Signs develop slowly and include PU, PD,
polyphagia, weight loss, weakness. Fatal if left untreated. Incurable,
but can be managed.

FLUTD (Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease)

Caused by the presence of uroliths, causing trauma, difficulty
urinating. Gelatinous plug...'plugged tomcats'.... struvite &
calcium oxalate are most common types of uroliths in cats. Urine,
diet, pH, and UTIs play a role in urolith formation. If a plug has
formed, removal is necessary, either by passing a catheter and
flushing it back into the bladder or surgical removal.


Presence of urinary stones.Can cause urinary obstruction, cystitis,
and urethritis. Treatment is aimed at removing the stones &
preventing them from forming again.


Undescended testicle(s).


AKA spaying. Surgical removal of ovaries, oviducts, and uterus.