Principles of Anatomy and Physiology: Principals of Anatomy & Physiology Flashcards

What are the 4 types of Tissue?

1. Epithelial
2. Connective
3. Muscular
4. Nervous

What are some general features of Epithelial Tissue?

1. Cells are arranged in sheets
2. Cells are densely packed
3. Many cell junctions are present
4. Cells attach to basement membrane
5. Avascular, but with nerve supply
6. Mitosis occurs frequently

What is the Apical Surface?

Free surface of an epithelial cell, unattached.

What are the two sections of the Basement Membranes?

Basal Lamina
Reticular Lamina

What are two forms of Epithelial Tissue?

Covering and Lining

What is the function on Epithelial Tissue?

Sensory Reception

How is Epithelial Tissue Classified?

1. Arrangement of Layers
2. Cell Shape

Describe Simple Squamous? Where is it found?

1) Single layer of flattened cells with disc shaped central nuclei.
Simplest of the Epithelia.
2) Air Sacs of Lungs, Blood Vessels, Ventral Body Cavity (Serosae)

Describe Simple Cuboidal? Where is it found?

1) Single layer of cube-like cells, large spherical central nuclei
2) Kidney Tubules, Secretory Portions of Small Glands

Describe Simple Columnar. Where is it found?

1) Single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei. Some cells
bear cilia. May contain mucus secreting unicellular glands (goblet cells).
2) Non-ciliated lines most of digestive tract. Ciliated lines small
bronchi, uterine tubes, regions of the uterus.

Describe Pseudostratified Columnar. Where is it found?

1) Single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the
apical surface, nuclei seen at different levels, may contain goblet
cells and bear cilia.
2) Non-ciliated type found in males sperm ducts, ciliated found
lining the trachea.

Describe Stratified Squamous. Where is it found?

1) Thick membrane. Basal Cells are cuboidal or columnar, surface
cells are squamous. Keratinized and Non-keratinized.
2) Non-keratinized (no dead cells) forms moist linings of esophagus,
mouth, and vagina. Keratinized forms the epidermis of the skin.

Describe Transitional? Where is it found?

1) Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal, basal
cells are cuboidal or columnar, surface cells are dome-like. Apical
cells shape are based on the degree of organ stretch.
2) Lines the ureters, bladder, and part of the urethra.

What is a Gland?

A gland can be a single cell (goblet) or a mass of epithelial cells
adapted for secretion.

What is an Exocrine Gland?

A gland that secretes fluids into the epithelial surfaces of the
body. They usually have ducts leading to the body surfaces.
Example: Sweat Glands

What is an Endocrine Gland?

A gland that releases hormones directly into the blood circulatory
system and modulate internal body processes. Also known as ductless glands.
Example: Pituitary

What are the three classifications of Glandular Epithelium?

1) Merocrine - Gland made up of secretory cells that remain intact
throughout the process of secretion.
2) Apocrine - A type of gland which the secretory products at the
free end of the secreting cell and are pinched off.
3) Holocrine - A type of gland in which secretory cells along with
their secretions, make up the product.

What are the general features of Connective Tissue?

1) Consists of Cells and Extracellular Matrix
2) Cells do not cover or line.
3) Connective Tissue is highly vascularized. (Except tendons and Cartilage)

What is Connective Tissue's Extracellular Matrix composed of?

Fibers and Ground Substance

What are the three fibers found in the extracellular matrix?

1) Collagen Fibers
2) Elastic Fibers
3) Reticular Fibers

What are the two classifications of Connective Tissues?

Embryonic and Mature

What are the five different Mature Connective Tissues?

1) Loose - fewer fibers/ more ground substance
2) Dense - More fibers/ less ground substance
3) Cartilage - Semi-solid Matrix
4) Bone - Solid Matrix
5) Blood - The only liquid connective tissue

What is a macrophage?

A cell that develops monocytes and destroys bacteria and cell debris
by phagocytosis.

What is a fibroblast?

Large flat cells that move through connective tissue and secrete
fibers and ground substance.

Describe Connective Tissue Proper (Loose Connective Tissue) Areolar.
Where is it Found?

Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types.
Found under epithelia of body; packages organs, surrounds capillaries.

Describe Connective Tissue Proper ( Loose Connective Tissue) Adipose.
Where is it found?

Matrix as in areolar but very sparse. Closely packed fat cells have
nucleus pushed to the side by lager fat droplet.
Under skin in Subcutaneous tissue, around kidneys and eyeballs, in breasts.

Describe Connective Tissue Proper (Loose Connective Tissue)
Reticular. Where is it found?

Network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance.
Lymphoid Organs (Lymph Nodes, Bone Marrow, Spleen)

Describe Connective Tissue Proper (Dense Connective Tissue) Dense
Regular. Where is it found?

Primarily parallel collagen fibers, few elastic fibers, major cell
type is fibroblast.
Found in tendons, ligaments.

Describe Connective Tissue Proper (Dense Connective Tissue) Dense
Irregular. Where is it found?

Primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers, some elastic fibers.
Fibrous capsules of organs and joints, dermis of skin, submucosa of
digestive tract.

Describe Connective Tissue Proper (Dense Connective Tissue) Elastic.
Where is it found?

Dense regular connective tissue containing a high proportion of
elastic fibers.
Found in walls of large arteries, within walls of bronchial tubes.

What are some characteristics of Cartilage?

1) Made of Chondroblasts and Chondrocytes
2) Tough yet flexible
3) Lacks Nerve Fibers
4) Up to 80% water
5) Avascular
6) Retrieves nutrients from the perichondrium membrane

What are the three types of cartilage?

Hyaline Cartilage
Elastic Cartilage

Describe Hyaline Cartilage. Where is it found?

Amorphous but firm matrix.
Forms most of the embryonic skeleton, covers the ends of long bones
in joint cartilage, nose, trachea, larnyx

Describe Elastic Cartilage. Where is it found?

Similar to hyaline but more elastic fibers in matrix.
Found supporting the external ear (pinna); epiglottis

Describe Fibrocartilage. Where is it found?

Matrix similar to but less firm than that in hyaline. Thick collagen fibers.
Found in intervertebral discs. Discs of knee joint.

Describe Bone.

1) Also called osseous tissue.
2) Supports and protects body tissue.
3) Stores fat and synthesizes blood cells in cavities.
4) Has inorganic calcium salts.
5) Richly vascularized.

What are Osteons?

Structural units of bone.

Describe Osseous Tissue (Bone). Where is it found?

Hard, Calcified matrix, very well vascularized.
Simply stated, bones.

Describe Blood.

Most atypical connective tissue - its fluid.
Red Blood Cells are the most common type.
Also Contains Platelets and White Blood Cells.
Functions in transport.

What are membranes?

Membranes are flat sheets of pliable tissue that cover or line a part
of the body.

What are three types of epithelial membranes?

1) Mucous Membranes
2) Serous Membranes
3) Cutaneous Membranes

Describe Synovial Membranes.

Synovial membranes line joints and contain synovial fluid.

What are some characteristics of Muscular Tissue?

1) Consists of fibers
2) Provides Motion
3) Helps maintain posture
4) Produces Heat

What are the three types of Muscular Tissue?

1) Skeletal Muscle Tissue - Voluntary Muscle, found in skeletal muscle
2) Cardiac Muscle Tissue - Found in walls of the heart, Involuntary
3) Smooth Muscle Tissue - Mainly in walls of hollow organs other
than the heart, involuntary

Describe Skeletal Muscle Tissue.

Long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells. Obvious Striations.

Describe Cardiac Muscle.

Branching, striated, generally uninucleate cells. Have specialized
junctions called intercalated discs.

Describe Smooth Muscle Tissue.

Spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei, no striations, cells
arranged in sheets.

What are some general characteristics of Nervous Tissue?

1) Made of two types of cells: Neurons and Neuroglia
2) Most neurons have a cell body, dendrites, and axons which carry
sensory and motor information.
3) Neuroglia protect and support neurons.

What is tissue repair?

Tissue repair is the process that replaces worn out, damaged, or dead cells.

What kind of repair can muscle cells perfom?


Can nervous cells perform repair?

Some can, others cannot.

What is fibrosis?

The formation of scar tissue.

What are the organs of the Integumentary System?

Skin and accessory structures: Hair, Nails, Glands, Blood Vessels,
Muscles, and Nerves.

What are the functions of the Integumentary System?

1) Maintains body's integrity.
2) Maintains Temperature.
3) Converts Inactive Vitamin D to active form.
4) Provides sensory information
5) Maintains Homeostasis.

What are the two major layers of the skin?

1) Epidermis
2) Dermis
---Also includes the hypodermis (Subcutaneous). Located underneath
the dermis.

What are the four major types of cells in the epidermis?

1) Keratinocytes
2) Melanocytes
3) Intraepidermal Macrophages
4) Tacticle Epithelial Cells (Merkle Cells)

What do Keratinocytes do?

Produce keratin - a tough fiberous protein that provides protection.

What do Melanocytes do?

Produce the pigment melanin.

What to Intraepidermal Macrophages do?

Involved in immune responses.

What do tactile epithelial cells do?

Function in the sensation of touch.
Also called Merkle Cells.

How many layers compose thin skin? (Deep to Superficial)

1) Stratum Basale
2) Stratum Spinosum
3) Stratum Granulosum
4) Stratum Corneum

What are the five layers of thick skin? (Deep to Superficial)

1) Stratum Basale
2) Stratum Spinosum
3) Stratum Granulosum
4) Stratum Lucidum
5) Stratum Corneum

Where is Thin Skin found?

Covers all body regions except the palms, palmar surfaces of digits,
and soles.

Where is thick skin found?

Covers the palms, palmar surfaces of digits, and soles.

What are the three pigments? What colors do they produce?

1) Carotene - Orange/Yellow pigment (can also be converted to vitamin A)
2) Melanin - Yellow/Brown or Black, Produced by melanocytes, stored
in melanosomes, transferred to keratinocytes
3) Hemoglobin

What is Albinism?

Congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial lack of
pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes.

What is Vitiligo?

Chronic disorder that causes depigmentation patches of the skin.

What is the dermis composed of? What are the regions?

The dermis is composed of connective tissue containing collagen and
elastic fibers.
The regions of the dermis are: The Papillary Region and the
Reticular Region.

Describe the subcutaneous layer.

Also known as the hypodermis, it attaches the skin to underlying
tissues and organs.

Which sensory receptors are found superficially?

Cutaneous Mechanoreceptors
Free Nerve Endings
Corpuscles of Touch and Hair Root Plexuses

Which sensory receptors are located deep?

Lamellated Corpuscles.

What is hair composed of?

Dead keratinized epidermal cells

What are the parts of the hair?

The Shaft (above the skin surface)
The Follicle (below the level of the skin)
The Root (into the dermis) - contains epithelial root sheath and
dermal root sheath

What role does the sebaceous gland play?

Attached to the hair follicle, secrets oil directly onto the hair.

What are the four types of glands found in the skin?

1) Sebacious (oil) gland - connected to hair follicles.
2) Eccrine Sweat Glands - most numerous
3) Apocrine Sweat Glands - located mostly in hairy skin
4) Ceruminous Glands - are modified sweat glands located in the ear canal

What are nails composed of?

Made of keratinized epidermal cells.

What are the cell structures of the Nail?

1) Free Edge
2) Transparent Nail Body
3) Nail Root

Describe Epidermal Wound Healing.

Occurs following superficial wounds that effect only the epidermis.
---Contact Inhibition stops cell migration on contact.

When does Deep Wound Healing take place?

Occurs when an injury extends to the dermis and subcutaneous layer.

How does the integumentary system change with age?

1) Wrinkles develop
2) Dehydration and cracking occurs.
3) Sweat production decreases
4) Decrease in functional number of melanocytes results in grey hair
and atypical skin pigmentation
5) Subcutaneous fat is lost, skin becomes thinner.
6) Nails become more brittle.

What are the three major types of skin cancer?

1) Basal Cell Carcinoma
2) Squamous Cell Carcinoma
3) Malignant Melanoma

What are the levels of a burn? What causes burns?

Burns are tissue damage caused by excessive heat, electricity,
radioactivity, or corrosive chemicals.
1st Degree Burns - Damage to the epidermis (sunburn)
2nd Degree Burns - Damage to the Epidermis and Dermis (blistering burns)
3rd Degree Burns - Damage to the Epidermis, Dermis, and Subcutaneous Layer

Cartilage that supports the External Ear


The Cartilage between the Vertebrae?


The cartilage that forms the walls of the voice-box? (Larynx)


The cartilage of the Epiglottis?


Articular Cartilages?


The cartilage of the meniscus of the knee joint?


Cartilage that connects the ribs to the sternum?


Cartilage most effective at resisting compression?


Cartilage which is most springy and flexible?


Most abundant cartilage?


What is a spine?

Sharp Slender Process

What is a tubercle?

Small rounded Projection

What is a line?

Narrow ridge of a bone.

What is a tuberosity?

Large Rounded Projection.

What is a head?

Structure supported on neck.

What is a Ramus?

Arm-like projection.

What is a condyle?

Rounded, articular projection.

What is a fissure?

A narrow opening.

What is a meatus?

A canal-like structure.

What is a foramen?

Round or oval opening through a bone.

What is a fossa?

Shallow depression.

What is a sinus?

Air-filled cavity.

What is a trochanter?

A large, irregularly shaped projection.

What is an epicondyle?

Raised area on or above an condyle.

What is a process?

Projection or prominence.

What is a facet?

Smooth, nearly flat articular surface.

What is the end portion of the long bone called?


What helps reduce friction at joints?

Articular Cartilage

What is the site of blood cell formation?

Red Marrow

What are the two major sub membranous sites of osteogenic cells?


What is the scientific term for bone shaft?


What contains Yellow Marrow in adult bones?

Medullary Cavity

What is the growth plate remnant called?

Epiphyseal Lines

What are the layers of bony matrix around a central canal?

Concentric Lamellae

What is the site of osteocytes called?


What is the longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics,
and nerves called?

Central Canal

What are the tiny canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon?


What are inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substance called?


What is the anatomical position?

The human body is erect, with the feet only slightly apart, head and
toes are pointed forward, the arms are hanging at the sides with the
palms facing forward.

Anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs.


Point of the shoulder.



Point of the shoulder.


Anterior surface of the elbow.












Neck Region.






Fingers or Toes



Fibular (peroneal)

Side of the leg




Great Toe


Groin Area


Breast Region










Bony Eye Socket (Orbit)


Palm of the hand


Anterior Knee (kneecap) region.




Pelvis Region




Genital Region


Region of the breastbone.








Heel of the foot.




Buttocks or Rump


Area of the back between the ribs and the hips; the loin


Posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull.


Posterior aspect of the elbow




Region between the hips (overlying the sacrum).


Scapula or shoulder blade area.


Calf or posterior surface of the leg


Area of the spinal column

What is the meaning of Superior?

Above, for example the nose is superior to the mouth.

What is the meaning of inferior?

Below, for example the abdomen is inferior to the chest.

What is the meaning of Anterior?

Structures toward the front of the body.

What is the meaning of Posterior?

Structures toward the rear of the body.

What is the meaning of Medial?

Toward the midline.

What is the meaning of lateral?

Away from the midline.

What is the meaning of proximal?

Nearer the trunk or attached region.

What is the meaning of distal?

Farther from the trunk or attached region.

What is the meaning of superficial?

Toward or at the body surface.

What is the meaning of deep?

Away from the body surface.

What is the sagittal plane?

A plane that runs longitudinally (down the midline of the body) and
separates it into left and right sections.

What is the frontal plane?
---Sometimes called coronal.

A plane that runs longitudinally and divides the body or organ into
anterior and posterior sections.

What is a transverse plane?

A line that runs horizontally, dividing the body or organ into
superior and inferior sections.

What are the main body cavities?

Cranial - Contains Brain
Thoracic - Contains Heart/Lungs
Vertebral - Contains Spinal Cord
Abdominal Cavity - Contains Digestive Organs
Pelvic Cavity - Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

What are the three serous membranes (Serosa)? What organs do they cover?

1) Peritoneum - Abdominal Cavity and Covering it's organs
2) Pleura - Enclosing the lungs
3) Pericardium - Enclosing the heart.

What are the 4 Abdominalpelvic quadrants?

Right Upper Quadrant, Left Upper Quadrant, Right Lower Quadrant, Left
Lower Quadrant

What are the nine Abdominopelvic Regions?

1) Right Hypochondriac Region
2) Epigastric Region
3) Left Hypochondriac Region
4) Right Lumbar Region
5) Umbilical Region
6) Left Lumbar Region
7) Right Iliac (Inguinal) Region
8) Hypogastric Region
9) Left Iliac (Inguinal) Region