What is the route of sperm from where they are produced to where they
exit the body?
seminiferous tubules, straight tubule, rete testis, efferent
ductules, epididymis, vas deferens
If testes are exposed to cold temps there are 2 muscles that help to
maintain a normal temp. What are they?
Cremaster and dartos muscle
Dartos muscle - smooth muscle, wrinkles scrotal skin, pulls scrotum
to the body.
Cremaster - skeletal muscle elevates testes
What are the two tunics that surround the testes?
Where are sperm produced?
What is the purpose of the pampiniform plexus?
it cools the blood
What is the diamond shapes region between public symphysis, coccyx,
and ischial tuberosities that suspends scrotum and contains root of
penis and anus?
What are the 3 spongy bodies of erectile tissue in the penis?
When a man gets a vasectomy what structure is cut and ligated?
which part of the urethra runs through the penis and opens at the
external urethral orifice
what are the male accessory sex glands?Which ones are paired? single?
Seminal glands & bulbo-urethral glands (paired)
which of the glands produce thick, clear mucus during sexual arousal
to lubricate glans penis and neutralize traces of acidic urine in urethra.
which gland produces the bulk of the semen containing alkaline
seminal glands or vesicles
which gland produces about 1/3 of volume
What is the normal volume of semen produced per ejaculation
what is the normal number of sperm per ejaculation?
20-150 million sperm/ml
why does semen contain fructose?
used as an energy source to make ATP
is semen acidic or basic?
what is the function of prostaglandins in the semen?
decrease viscosity of mucus in cervix
stimulates reverse peristalsis in uterus
the ___ nervous system initiates erection and the ___ nervous system
nervous system initiates ejaculation.
during erection ___ causes relacation of local vascular smooth muscle.
the arterioles dilate and the ___ expands cutting off venous drainage
which muscles undergo a series of rapid contractions to expel semen
from the penis
what is the primary cause of erectile dysfunction?
parasympathetic nerve of penis release too little norepinephrine
how many chromosomes do humans have
2n or diploid number
what are gametes
egg and sperm
what is the gamete chromosome number
what is the process of sperm production called
what process reduces the chromosome number from 46 to 23 in gametes?
other than reducing the chromosome number what is another purpose of meiosis?
creates genetic diversity
How many cell divisions?
meiosis 1 and meiosis 2
how many daughter cells are produced
4 daughter cells
what are two things that occur that can lead to genetic diversity?
crossing over (genetic recombination) (prophase 1)
a spermatogonia (stem cell) undergoes mitosis to give rise to 2 spermatocytes.
via meiosis, spermatocytes -> secondary spermatocytes -> spermatids
The process of spermatids becoming spermatozoa is called ______.
what prevents sperm antigens from escaping into the blood and
activating the immune system?
hormonal regulation of male reproductive function
hypothalamus releases gonadotropin releasing hormone -> anterior
pituitary -> secrete FSH and LH -> testes
testosterone is synthesized from
2 regions of ovaries
what is the normal route of eggs as they are produced in the ovary
and are released?
ovary, fallopian tube, uterus
where are eggs normally fertilized?
oviduct (fallopian tube)
where do eggs implant?
ovarian follocies are found in which layer of the ovary?
a single layer of follicle cells plus an oocyte is called a
what is a fully mature follicle called
tertiary or antral follicle
_____ develops after a follicle ruptures at ovulation
3 layers of uterus
which layer is smooth muscle (uterus)
what layer of endometrium forms the stratus functionalis after it is
shed each month
what layer of endometrium is shed each month
______ fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis
____ hair-covered, fatty skin folds
___ skin folds lying within labia majora
what glands release mucus to the vestibule for lubrication
greater vestibular glands
female counterpart to the penis
when does oogenesis begin
stem cells for ovary
multiply by mitosis and store nutrients
primary oocytes develop in
primary oocytes begin meiosis
stall in prophase 1
secondary oocyte arrests in metaphase 2
if oocyte is not penetrated by sperm
what are the phases of the ovarian cycle an when does each occur?
follicular phase days 1-14
ovulation occurs midcycle
luteal phase days 14-28
gamete + gamete =
at 36 hours 2 daughter cells are formed called
the blastocyst of embryo consisting of 100 cells reaches the uterus
in ______ days
implantation occurs ____ days after ovulation
what hormone maintains the corpus luteum to prevent menstruation?
human chorionic gonadotropin
what does hcg do
prompts corpus luteum to continue secretion of progesterone and estrogen
HCG levels rise until the ___ month of pregnancy
Placenta becomes active in the ____ month of pregnancy
What is the maternal portion of the placenta called?
what is the fetal portion of the placenta called
how many lung lobes on the right?
superior, middle, inferior
how many lung lobes on the left?
what type of epithelium is in the nasal cavity
pseudostratified ciliated squamous epithelium
what are the 4 paranasal sinuses
frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary
what are functions of paranasal sinuses
what are the sites of gas exchange?
surfactant is secreted by
type II alveolar cells
what type of serus membrane lines the
catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars ?
breaks down proteins and connective tissue?
its enzyme precursor, pepsinogen, degrades food protein?
which makes up the small intestine ?
deodenum, jejunum, lleum
starts the large intestine ?
the appendix is adjacent to the ?
to cecum of colon.
large intestine inculdes ?
cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid
colon, rectum, anal canal.
name regions of right side ?
name regions of left side ?
name regions of middle section .
what organ is in the right upper ?
liver and gallbladder
organ in right middle ?
organ in right lower?
cecum and appendix
organ in upper epigastric ?
organ in middle epigastric?
organ in lower epigastric ?
organ in left upper ?
organ in left middle ?
organ in left lower?
what is 1. IN DIGESTIVE PROCESS ?
WHAT IS 2. IN DIGESTIVE PROCESS ?
WHAT IS 3. IN DIGESTIVE PROCESS?
WHAT IS 4. IN DIGESTIVE PROCESS ?
WHAT IS 5. IN DIGESTIVE PROCESS ?
WHAT IS 6. IN DIGESTIVE PROCESS ?
WHAT IS INGESTION?
occurs in FOOD INTO the mouth
WHAT IS PROPULSION?
movement of food via Peristalsis, the major means of
propulsion. Adjacent segments of the alimentary canal relax and
what is mechanical breakdown ?
prepares food for chemical digestion by enzymes into
smaller pieces via: SEGMENTATION , non adjacent segment , contract
and relax, food is moved back and foward , mixed and propelled.
what is digestion ?
food molecules are broken down to chemical blocks , gastro and
accessory glands produce enzymes and secrete from lumen of alimentary canal.
what is absorbtion ?
transport of digested nutrients.
what is defecation?
elimination of indigestible substances as feces.
patient signs ?
vitals, blood pressure .
what is febrail ?
what is Afebrail?
patient symptons ?
patient talks, pain feeling , etc..
what is mucosa ?
surface area shape to gain more nutrients.
four layers of alimentary canal?
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa .
salivary glands consist of ?
submandibular, sublingual, parotid gland.
what is purpose of esophagus ?
food passage . throat to stomach
esophagus meets with stomach at ?
lower esophogial sphincter
whole process from food into mouth all to food exit in anus?
where is fundus found ?
stomach , bladder, gallbladder, uterus, eye
surface area possible in stomach by ?
food not get out from stomach by ?
stomach gastric pits for ?
secreation of secretory cells
stomach secretary cells are ?
chief cells and parietal cells.
chief cells do ?
secretion of pepsinogen
parietal cells do ?
secretion of hydrochloric acid
hydrochloric acid + pepsinogen
mesentary is ?
organs are anchor, vascular system, nerves
omentum is ?
fatty layer protector, heals.
small intestine vs large intestine?
large intestine has no peyers patches
no intestinal villi
no circular folds
cant secrete enzymes
what are goblet cells?
internal surface , lubricates chyme, protection layer.
what are intestinal crypts?
intestinal juice , watery mix with chyme, help with absorbtion.
food in intestines ?
19hrs shortest and 36 hrs longest.
insulin to blood sugar ?
glucagon to blood sugar ?
where does insulin come from ?
where does glucagon come from ?
where does glycogen come from ?
what does glycogen do ?
provides body with a source of energy.
how long does food remain in small intestine ?
how long is the duodenum ?
6-12 in .
which part of gastric tissue is part of it due to H.C.L ?
bile is made in ?
bile is stored in ?
whats part of gallbladder leads to liver ?
common hepatic portal ( left and right )
crystic duct leads to ?
gall bladder does what ?
releases bile when digesting occurs into small intestine.
bile comes from gallbladder to duodenum through?
major doudenal papilla
bile duct connects to what ducts in the pancreas ?
main pancreatic duct and accessory pancreatic duct.
how to get to gallbladder surgery ?
food remains in large intestine how long ?
jejunum is how long ?
2.5 meters long
Iluem is how long?
circulur folds help with ?
villi is for ?
absortion of nutrients with microvilli
last part of iluem turns into ?
stores good bacteria .
which is anchor to abdominal wall ?
how long is the large intestine ?
teniae coli are ?
smooth muscle in colon.
draw up, sacs
liver has how many lobes ?
four lobes of liver are called ?
caudate , quadrae , left/right
ligament of liver that divides the left and right ?
which ligament of liver anchors it to the abdominal wall ?
kidney waste to urinary bladder?
which rib bones protect kidneys ?
eleven and twelve
region of kidneys?
renal : medulla, cortex, pelvis
renal medulla in kidney is?
middle portions that form renal pyramids.
renal pyramids are constructed by ?
tiny urine collection tubes.
renal pelvis is ?
center, as well where major and minor caylx located.
renal cortex is ?
outside thick layer surrounding inside.
order of waste out of kidney?
blood vessels waste collected, renal pelvis , major and minor caylx, ureter
kidney, By regulating salt levels through production of an enzyme
stimulates and controls red blood cell production in kidneys?
blood vessels through renal :
aorta-renal A.-segmental A.- interlobar A.- Arcuate A.- cortical
radiate A.- afferent glomerulur arteriole- glomerulus
capillaries-efferent glomerulur arteriole- peritubular and vasa recta-
repeat back into viens - inferior vena cava.
nephron produces urines through:
filtration, resorption, secretion
blood leaves kidneys capillaries
most nutruents , water, ions .
remove undisirable liquids and molecules that were filter and reabsorbed.
surrounds the glomerular capillaries
filters water ions, glucose , to pass into loop.
cells in glomerulis ?
podocytes , form a barrier.
retroperitoneal is ?
space back in the abdominal wall cavity.
cortical nephron ?
short loop, glumerus further from cortexmedulla, efferent arteriole
supplies peritubular capillaries.
juxtamedullary nephron ?
long hoop, glumerus closer to cortexmedulla, efferent arteriole
supplies vasa recta.
cortical nephron % ?
85 . j
juxtamedullary nephron % ?
muscle cover bladder?
bladder lining that allows to stretch ?
urinary canal into bladder ?
internal urethral sphincter is voluntary ? true or false
internal urethral sphincter action?
close when no urine
external urethral sphincter voluntary ? true or false.
external urethral sphincter action?
pouch for testes
production of sperm?
secretion of hormones in male?
testosterone and inhibin
cells of testes, develop sperm , produce inhibin
interistitial cells ?
storage of mature sperm
ductus defererns ?
recieves from epididymus, ejects into duct
urethra with sperm is exit ? true or false
semen count ?
20-150 million ml
lubricates penis , release alkaline fliud
nutrient for sperm .
prostate gland accounts for how much %?
seminal gland ?
seminal gland %?
erection caused by?
parasympathetic nerves dialate arterioles in erectile tissue.
ejaculation caused by?
discharge of sympathetic nerves.
L.H in males ?
F.S.H in males?
dortos muscle ?
smooth muscle , wrinkled look on outside
female secrete lubrication?
greater vestibular gland
opening of uterus?
infundibulum , ampulla, isthmus
drape over ovary?
f.s.h and L.H come from what organ?
F.S.H stimultes in females ?
ovaries to release estrogen.
estrogen stimulates pituitary gland to release ?
G.n.R.H stimulates pituitary gland to release?
L.H stimulates ?
ovolation, eggs to mature.
hole in ovary?
corpus luteum release ?
estrogen and progesterone .
progesterone does ?
prepares the uterus for implantation
what cells move egg through uterus tube for fertelization?
what ligament holds ovary?
what ligament hold uterus?
egg in tube still called ?
ovarian cycle :
follicular phase , ovulation, luteal phase
follicullar phase ?
14 days , egg is release
what hormones peak at ovulation?
L.H and F.S.H
uterine cycle ?
menstrual, proliferative, secretory
shedding of functional layer of endometrium.
rebuilding of functional layer of endometrium
what hormone rises at proliferative?
begins right after ovulation, enrich blood supply , and nutirents ,
prepare to recieve embryo.
what hormone peaks at secretory?
sperm into egg?
layer that opens for sperm to enter egg?
secrete enzymes beneath zona pellucida, no more sperm allowed in egg.
umbilical cord for?
oxygen and nutrients
in birth if leg first you ?