Human Anatomy & Physiology: Ch 27 and 28 Flashcards

Why are the male testes located in the scrotum outside the body?

Immature sperm are temperature sensitive.

Sperm are stored in the __________.


Genetic variation of individual chromosomes occurs during __________.

Prophase 1

What is the function of the blood-testis barrier?

to prevent activation of the immune system of the male against the
developing sperm

Which of the following is FALSE regarding the vagina of an adult
female?A) The vagina is also called the birth canal.B) The
vaginal mucosa lacks glands.|C) The mucosa of the vagina is
stratified squamous epithelium.D) The pH of the adult vagina is alkaline.

The pH of the adult vagina is alkaline.

A surge in __________ directly triggers ovulation.

luteinizing hormone (LH)

Why does only one egg, rather than four eggs, develop during
oogenesis, given that spermatogenesis results in four sperm formed
from one stem cell?

The unequal cytoplasmic division that results in one egg and three
polar bodies ensures that a fertilized egg has ample nutrients for its
journey to the uterus

What is the role of the corpus luteum?

to produce hormones that maintain the uterine lining during the first
months of pregnancy

During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle __________.

the endometrium prepares for implantation

Which of the following conditions might contribute to an increased
probability of having an ectopic pregnancy?A) reduced blood flow
to the ovariesB) decreased number of cilia in the uterine
tubesC) reduced number of granulosa cellsD) decreased rate
of formation of vesicular follicles

decreased number of cilia in the uterine tubes

The primary function of the uterus is to ________.

receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

True or False
The soft mucosal lining of the uterus is the endometrium.


The sperm's acrosome ____________________.

contains enzymes, which allow the sperm to penetrate the egg.

These cells located in between seminiferous tubules produce
testosterone _______________


Fertilization generally occurs in the ________.

Fallopian tubes

During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.

progesterone levels are at their highest

Functions of testosterone include _______

facilitation of muscle and skeletal growth in mass

Normally menstruation occurs when ________.

blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease

The uterine layer which is shed with each monthly cycle is _________

the functional layer of endometrium.

Effects of estrogen include _______

growth of the breasts at puberty

Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female
menstrual cycle? A) late in this phase, cervical mucus becomes
thin and crystalline B) vesicular follicle growth C)
corpus luteum D) development of endometrial cells

C. Corpus Luteum

True or False
A human egg or sperm contains 23 pairs of chromosomes.


True or False
Ovarian follicles contain mature eggs.


Which of the following glands are responsible for 60% of the
synthesis of semen?A) the seminal vesiclesB) the
bulbourethral glandsC) the prostateD) the pituitary

the seminal vesicles

Which of the following constitutes the female counterpart of the male
scrotum?A) the clitorisB) the greater vestibular
glandsC) the labia majoraD) the mons pubis

the labia majora

Sperm freshly deposited in the female vagina are incapable of
fertilizing an egg. What must happen first?


Which of the following is the primary germ layer that forms the basis
for the digestive, respiratory, and urogenital systems, and for
associated glands?A) endodermB) gastrodermC)
ectodermD) mesoderm


What structure(s) ultimately form(s) the placenta?

decidua basalis and chorionic villi

A dangerous complication of pregnancy called __________ results in an
insufficient placental blood supply, which can starve a fetus of
oxygen. The pregnant woman becomes edematous and hypertensive, and
proteinuria occurs.


Which of the following structures is derived from the
ectoderm?A) gonadsB) heartC) kidneyD) brain
and spinal cord

D) brain and spinal cord

Which body system of a pregnant woman shows the most dramatic
physiological changes during pregnancy?

Cardiovascular System

A pregnant woman with preeclampsia becomes edematous and
hypertensive. An effective way to treat these symptoms might be _____.

to use drugs that cause systemic vasodilatation

Developmental events during weeks 9-12 include ________.

sex readily detected from the genitals

During which stage of labor is the fetus delivered?

Expulsion stage

True or False
The period from fertilization through week eight is called the
embryonic period.


Sperm move to the uterine tube through uterine contractions and the
energy of their own flagella. What other factor is involved in sperm movement?

reverse peristalsis of the uterus and uterine tubes

The umbilical arteries carry ________.

waste products to the placenta

An implantation that takes place in a site other than the uterus is
called ____________________.


True or False
The two hormones responsible for initiating labor are thyroxine and
human chorionic thyrotropin.


Failure of the foramen ovale to close at birth may result in ________.

mixing of oxygenated and non-oxygenated blood

True or False
hCG remains the dominant hormone throughout pregnancy.


Relaxin is a hormone produced by the placenta and ovaries. The
function of this hormone is to ________.

Relax the pubic symphysis

It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the
egg) until after ________.

They undergo capacitation

The hormone that induces labor and controls labor via a positive
feedback mechanism is ____________________.


When does the true moment of fertilization occur?

it occurs as the maternal and paternal chromosomes combine and
produce the diploid ZYGOTE, or fertilized egg.