Chemistry Test One

Democritus

Proposed that matter was made up of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms

Aristotle

Proposed that everything was made of 4 essential elements and 1 heavenly element (air, water, earth, fire, heavenly element)

TRUE

T/F: We believed Aristotle's idea instead of Democritus

Test everything. Hold on to the good.

What does the Bible teach us that relates to Chemistry?

Galileo Galilei

The first person to challenge Aristotle's views; he made the Roman Catholic Church angry because he published his ideas in Italian instead of Latin (the commoners could read it)

alchemists

the first chemists were called...?

turn everything to gold

Alchemists wanted to...?

Isaac Newton

He was the second person to challenge Aristotle's views; the first successful one; he challeneged the idea of a "heavenly element

Antonine Lavoiser

Known as the Father of Chemistry, he showed that sir is made up of two elements (Nitrogen/Oxygen), thus refuting the Aristotelian belief of an "air" element. Also, he showed that oxygen reacts with metal, not fire (refutes the "fire" element)

Dmitri Mendeleev

Discovered the Periodic Table of Elements

Albert Einstein

Found a way to show how water molecules must behave because of atoms, thus proving that Democritus was correct all along

Mass

The amount of matter that is in an object

Weight

The affect that gravity has on your mass

chemical property

Iron and oxygen form rust (physical/chemical?)

physical property

Iron is denser than aluminum (physical/chemical?)

chemical property

Magnesium burns brightly when ignited (physical/chemical?)

chemical property

Oil and water do not mix (physical/chemical?)

physical property

Mercury melts at -39 degrees (physical/chemical?)

physical change

Crushing an aluminium can (physical/chemical?)

physical change

Recycling used aluminum cans to make new aluminum cars(physical/chemical?)

chemical change

Aluminum combining with oxygen to form aluminum oxide (physical/chemical?)

58.44 g Sodium Chloride

In the complete reaction of 22.99 g of sodium with 35.45 g of chlorine, what mass of sodium chloride is formed?

66.7 g XY

A 12.2 g sample of X reacts with a sample of Y to form 78.9 g of XY. What is the mass of Y that reacted?

FALSE

T/F: Because composition doesn't change during a physical change, the appearance of a substance does not change

homogeneous mixture

tap water (hetero/homo?)

homogeneous mixture

air (hetero/homo?)

heterogeneous mixture

raisin muffin (hetero/homo?)

Physical; no bonds are being broken. Even when the gas escapes, you still have a soda left in the can.

Is gas escaping from an open soft drink an example of a chemical or physical change? Explain.

Chemical; you can smell that it is a chemical change, the fire cooks it; anytime something is being cooked it's a chemical change

Does a physical change or chemical chaange occur when eggs are cooked. Justify your answer.

homogeneous mixture

air (substance, homo, hetero?)

homogeneous mixture

aerosol (substance, homo, hetero?)

heterogeneous mixture

soil (substance, homo, hetero?)

substance

water (substance, homo, hetero?)

heterogeneous mixture

sediment (substance, homo, hetero?)

heterogeneous mixture

muddy water (substance, homo, hetero?)

The law of conservation of mass states that during a chemical or physical change, mass cannot be created or destroyed. The other half lost its solid form, but it is still a gas or a liquid (hot candle wax). It's adding more to the air and it just changed

After burning for three hours, a candle has lost half of its mass. Explain why this example doesn't violate the law of conservation of mass.

chemical

sodium hydroxide dissolves in water (chemical/physical?)

chemical

hydrochloric acid reacts with potassium hydroxide to produce a salt, water, and heat (chemical/physical?)

physical

a pellet of sodium is sliced in two (chemical/physical?)

physical

water is heated and changed to steam (chemical/physical?)

chemical

potassium chlorate decomposes to potassium chloride and oxygen gas (chemical/physical?)

chemical

iron rusts (chemical/physical?)

chemical

when placed in H2O, a sodium pellet catches on fire as hydrogen gas is liberated and sodium hydroxide forms (chemical/physical?)

physical

evaporation (chemical/physical?)

physical

ice melting (chemical/physical?)

chemical

milk souring (chemical/physical?)

chemical

sugar dissolves in water (chemical/physical?)

chemical

wood rotting (chemical/physical?)

chemical

pancakes cooking on a griddle (chemical/physical?)

chemical

grass growing in a lawn (chemical/physical?)

physical

a tire is inflated with air (chemical/physical?)

chemical

food is digested in the stomach (chemical/physical?)

physical

water is absorbed by a paper towel (chemical/physical?)

beliefs must be tested, power of predictions

2 Biblical principles about science

chemistry

science that investigates and explains the structure and properties of matter

matter

anything that takes up space and has mass (e.g. AIR)

sound, electricity, energy, light, fire

examples of things that are not matter

macroscopic

the world you can see, smell, taste, or touch

microscopic

what can be seen with a microscope

submicroscopic

atomic level; cannot be seen with a microscope (we will mainly be studying this level)

qualitative

can be made without measurements

quantitative

uses measurements

solid

has a definite shape, a definite volume, and it's incompressible

liquid

has no definite shape, has a definite volume, slightly compressible

gas

has no definite shape, has no definite volume, fills whatever container it is put into, highly compressible

plasma, Einstein Condesate, Fermionic Condensate

list three other states of matter (besides solid, liquid, gas)

condensation, freezing, melting, evaporating

what do we call the points at which changes in state occur?

Law of conservation of energy

during a physical or chemical process, energy is not created or destroyed

substance

can be identified by a single chemical formula, always homogeneous

compound

chemical combination of 2 or more different elements joined together in a fixed proportion

alloy

mixture of elements with metallic properties

element

on the periodic table

mixtures

combinations of 2 or more substances; invariable ratios

heterogeneous mixture

different compositions depending on where you look (e.g. raisin muffin, pulpy OJ)

homogeoneous mixture

a solution same throughout (e.g. sugar, air)