Mastering Chemistry chapter 38 continued Flashcards

Short-term memory information processing usually causes changes in the


Forming new long-term memories is strikingly disrupted after damage
to the


When Phineas Gage had a metal rod driven into his frontal lobe he experienced

greatly altered emotional responses

An injury to the occipital lobe will likely impair the function of the

primary visual cortex

A ligand for the umami receptor in the sense of taste is

monosodium glutamate

The olfactory bulbs are located in the


The correct sequence of sensory processing is

stimulus reception ? sensory transduction ? sensory perception ?
sensory adaptation

Artificial electrical stimulation of a human's capsaicin-sensitive
neurons would likely produce the sensation of

hot temperature

Artificial electrical stimulation of a human's menthol-sensitive
neurons would likely produce the sensation of

cold temperature

Tastes and smells are distinct kinds of environmental information in that

neural projections from taste receptors reach different parts of the
brain than the neural projections from olfactory receptors

Stimuli alter the activity of excitable sensory cells via


Immediately after putting on a shirt, your skin might feel itchy.
However, this perception soon fades due to

sensory adaptation

A given photon of light may trigger an action potential with
thousands of times more energy because the signal strength is
magnified by

an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

The generation of action potentials in olfactory neurons initiated by
odors drawn into the nasal cavity is an example of

sensory transduction

Umami perception would be stimulated by

a savory and rich cheese

Statocysts contain cells that are

mechanoreceptors used to detect orientation relative to gravity

An earthworm without a statocyst would not be able to

orient with respect to gravity

The cellular membrane across which ion flow varies during auditory
transduction is the

hair cell membrane

Sound waves arriving at a listener first strike the

tympanic membrane

The pathway leading to the perception of sound by mammals begins with the

hair cells of the organ of Corti, which rests on the basilar
membrane, coming in contact with the tectorial membrane.

The cochlea is an organ of auditory transduction that contains

fluid and cells that can undergo mechanosensory transduction

Dizziness is a perceived sensation that can occur when

moving fluid in the semicircular canals encounters a stationary cupula

The perceived pitch of a sound depends on

which region of the basilar membrane was set in motion

It can be very difficult to select an angle for sneaking up to a
grasshopper to catch it because grasshoppers have

compound eyes with multiple ommatidia

Sensory transduction of light/dark information in the vertebrate
retina is accomplished by

rods and cones

Rods exposed to light will

hyperpolarize due to the closing of sodium channels

A rod exposed to light will

undergo a graded hyperpolarization that will decrease its release of glutamate

In the human retina

cone cells can detect color, but rod cells cannot

In a cephalized invertebrate, the system that transmits
"efferent" impulses from the anterior ganglion to distal
segments is the

peripheral nervous system

Our understanding of mental illness has been most advanced by
discoveries involving the

chemicals involved in brain communications

Failure of an embryonic neuron to establish a synaptic connection to
another cell

results in the apoptosis of that neuron

Experiments with genetically altered mice showed that the mice would
consume abnormally high amounts of bitter-tasting compounds in water
after their

sweet-taste cells were altered to express receptors for bitter
tastants, suggesting that the sensation of taste depends only on which
taste cell is stimulated