Mastering chemistry chapter 38 Flashcards

The central nervous system is lacking in animals that have

radial symmetry

Cephalization, the clustering of neurons and interneurons in the
anterior part of the animal, is apparent in


Choose the correct match of glial cell type and function.

astrocytes�metabolize neurotransmitters and modulate synaptic effectiveness

The cerebrospinal fluid is

a filtrate of the blood

The blood-brain barrier

is formed by tight junctions

Myelinated neurons are especially abundant in

the white matter in the brain and the white matter in the spinal cord.

Cerebrospinal fluid can be described as all of the following except

formed from layers of connective tissue.

The divisions of the nervous system that have antagonistic, or
opposing, actions are the

sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

Preparation for the fight-or-flight response includes activation of
the ________ nervous system.


Exercise and emergency reactions include

increased activity in the sympathetic division and decreased activity
in the parasympathetic division

The activation of the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous
system is associated with

resting and digesting

Afferent neuronal systems include the

sensory systems

Imagine you are resting comfortably on a sofa after dinner. This
could be described as a state with

decreased activity in the sympathetic nervous system, and increased
activity in the parasympathetic and enteric nervous systems

The system that modulates excitation and inhibition of the smooth and
cardiac muscles of the digestive, cardiovascular, and excretory
systems is the

autonomic nervous system

The 11 pairs of appendages projecting from the rostral area of
star-nosed moles are

tactile structures

Central coordination of vertebrate biological rhythms in physiology
and behavior resides in the


The endogenous nature of biological rhythms is based on the
observation that animals isolated from light and dark cues

continue to have cycles of approximately 24 hours in duration�some
more rapid, some slower.

The bottlenose dolphin breathes air but can sleep in the ocean
because it

alternates which half of its brain is asleep and which half is awake

The telencephalon region of the developing brain of a mammal

gives rise to the cerebrum

Increases and decreases of the heart rate result from changes in the
activity of the

medulla oblongata

The unconscious control of respiration and circulation is associated
with the

medulla oblongata

Which of the following structures are correctly paired?

hindbrain and cerebellum

Hormones that are secreted by the posterior pituitary gland are made
in the


The coordination of groups of skeletal muscles is driven by activity
in the


The regulation of body temperature derives from the activity of the


The regulatory centers for the respiratory and circulatory systems
are found in the

medulla oblongata

Food and water appetites are under the regulatory influence of the


The suprachiasmatic nuclei are found in the


Calculation, contemplation, and cognition are human activities
associated with increased activity in the


An organism that lacks integration centers

will not be able to interpret stimuli.

In mammals, advanced cognition is usually correlated with a large and
very convoluted neocortex, but birds are capable of sophisticated
cognition because they have

a pallium with neurons clustered into nuclei.

Wernicke's and Broca's regions of the brain affect


Which of the following shows a brain structure correctly paired with
one of its primary functions?

frontal lobe�decision making

If you were writing an essay, the part of your brain that would be
actively involved in this task is

the temporal and frontal lobes.

Wernicke's area

is active when speech is heard and comprehended.