Matter and Change

Extensive Properties

properties of matter that change based on amount (mass, volume, # moles, etc.)

Intensive Properties

Properties of matter that do not change based on amount (color, density, ductile, etc.)

Blue color

physical

density

physical

flammability

chemical

solubility

physical

reacts with acid to form H2

chemical

supports combustion

chemical

milk sours

chemical

melting point

physical

reacts with water to form a gas

chemical

reacts with a base to form water

chemical

hardness

physical

boiling point

physical

can neutralize a base

chemical

luster

physical

odor

physical

Sodium hydroxide dissolves in water

physical

hydrochloric acid reacts with potassium hydroxide to produce a salt, water and heat

chemical

a pellet of sodium is sliced in two

physical

water is heated and changed to steam

physical

potassium chlorate decomposes to potassium chloride and oxygen gas

chemical

iron rusts

chemical

when placed in water, a sodium pellet catches on fire as hydrogen gas is liberated and sodium hydroxide forms

chemical

evaporation

physical

ice melting

physical

sugar dissolves in water

physical

wood rotting

chemical

pancakes cooking on a griddle

chemical

grass growing in a lawn

chemical

a tire is inflated with air

physical

food is digested in the stomach

chemical

water is absorbed by a paper towel

physical

Physical Property

-may be observed with the sense and can be determined without destroying the object
-differences in physical properties may be used to separate mixtures

shape

physical

mass

physical

length

physical

Physical change

-the original substance still exists, it has only changed in form
-reversible or irreversible
-during a physical change, the composition of matter never changes
-mass in conserved during a physical change

Water boils

physical

Salt dissolves in water

physical

In what way are liquids and gases alike? In what way are liquids and solids different?

Both liquids and gases have definite volumes and are not easily compressed. However, solids have a definite shape and liquids have an indefinite shape.

How are mixtures classified?

Based on the distribution of their components, mixtures can be classified as heterogeneous mixtures or as homogeneous mixtures.

phase

(of mixtures)It is used to describe any part of a sample with uniform composition and properties. A homogeneous mixture consists of a single phase. A heterogeneous mixture consists of two or more phases.
(generally) the state of matter---solid, liquid, or

food coloring (homo or hetero)

homogeneous

ice cubes in liquid water

heterogeneous

mouthwash

homogeneous

mashed, unpeeled potatoes

heterogeneous

How are a substance and a solution similar? How are they different?

A substance is matter that has a uniform and definite composition: either an element or a compound. A solution is a homogeneous mixture; consists of solutes dissolved in a solvent. Therefore, both are similar in that their compositions are uniform through

Filtration

Used to separate a solid from a liquid in a heterogeneous mixture.

Distilation

Used to separate dissolved solids from a liquid, which is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed into a liquid.

How is a compound different from an element?

Compounds can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means, but elements cannot.

How can you distinguish a substance from a mixture?

If the composition of a material is fixed, the material is a substance. If the composition of a material may vary, the material is a mixture.

What are chemical symbols and chemical formulas used for?

Chemists use chemical symbols to represent elements, and chemical formulas to represent compounds

Name two methods that can be used to break down compounds into simpler substances.

The methods must involve a chemical change: a change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter. There is heating and the use of electric currents.

Chemical Property

Indicates how a substance reacts with something else. The original substance is changed when observing a chemical property.

Chemical change

-Cannot be reversed
-Energy changes always accompany chemical changes
-During a chemical change, the composition of matter always changes
-A transfer of energy, a change in color, the production of a gas, or the formation of a precipitate all indicate che

Table sugar

compound

tap water

mixture

cough syrup

mixture

nitrogen

element

What is the main difference between physical changes and chemical changes?

During a physical change, the composition of matter never changes. During a chemical change, the composition of matter always changes.

homogeneous

having uniform (similar) properties throughout. mixtures

heterogeneous

having parts with different properties..not uniform. mixtures

substance

a homogeneous material consisting of one particular kind of matter----a substance is pure, containing only one kind of molecule or chemical unit

mixture

a material composed of two or more substances each of which retains its own characteristic properties---the substances are considered to be separate from one another

element

a substance composed of one kind of atom

compound

a substance composed of two or more kinds of atoms chemically combined in definite proportions

metal

one of a class of elements that show luster and are good conductors of heat and electricity---metals tend to have high melting points and tend to be malleable and ductile

nonmetal

one of a class of elements that show a dull luster and are poor conductors of heat and electricity----they tend to be brittle and some have low melting points

solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

matter

anything that has mass and occupies volume

solute

the part of the solution that seems to change phase, or the part present in less quantity----the substance that is dissolved

solvent

the part of the solution that is present in greater quantity or does not change phase---the dissolving medium or the substance in which the dissolving takes place