Chapter 7 Chem

ionic

Ionic or covalent? Atoms form a compound by giving or taking an electron

covalent

Ionic or covalent? Atoms form a compound by sharing electrons

partial charge

Because opposite charges attract, compounds with either an ionic charge (+/-) or a ______________ can be attracted to each other

attraction forces, intermolecular force

______________________ are caused by the attraction of an electron-rich area (where electrons spend more of their time) to an electron poor area. If an attraction is between two molecules, it is called a __________________.

London, dipole-dipole, hydrogen, ion-dipole, ionic attraction

List the five attraction forces from weakest to strongest.

london attraction

A piece of plastic wrap that clings to itself is an example of what type of attraction? They have long, nonpolar hydrocarbon chains that interact with each other.

momentarily, unevenly

London attraction forces occurs ____________ in
all
molecules when electron's become ____________ distrubuted over a molecule's surface.

positive, electrons, dipole

When London attraction forces occur, the partially ___________ side of this temporary dipole attracts the ___________ of the second molecule, creating an attraction and creating a
temporary
___________ in the second molecule

all, nonpolar

While ______ compounds exhibit London forces, these forces are significant only in the case of ______________ molecules because London forces are the only attractive force in which nonpolar molecules participate

Nonpolar covalent bond

A bond in which the electrons are shared equally by the two atoms?

Polar covalent bond

A bond in which the electrons are more strongly attracted by one atom than the other

Ionic compound

Attraction forces can occur between molecules, ________________, or a combination of the two

induced dipole, dispersion force

The terms _____________ and ______________ describe the same attractive force as London forces.

polar

______________ molecules have a permanently uneven distribution caused by electronegativity in the atoms that make up the molecule

permanent dipole

________________ have a permanent separation of charge where one area of the molecule is partially positive and another partially negative.

dipole-dipole

_________________ attractions do not exist between nonpolar molecules because these molecules do not have permanent dipoles.

hydrogen bonding

__________________ involves a polarized hydrogen and is much stronger than dipole-dipole forces

hydrogen, electrons

Hydrogen bonding requires the interaction of a donor ______________ and an acceptor pair of ____________.

ion-dipole

The _______________ attraction occurs between ions and polar molecules, such as water.

ionic

________________ is the strongest attractive force because it involves more than just one uneven distribution of electrons. They are sometimes called
salt bridges

cellulose, hydrogen bonding

__________ molecules are held tightly together through _______________ bonding.

London

________________ forces hold cell membranes together

hydrogen

________________ bonding holds a DNA double helix in its twist

protein

______________ structures are held together by combinations of all the attractive forces discussed

Ammonia has N-H bonds, which are polar. N-H bonds can participate in hydrogen bonding and because an ionic charge is not present, the strongest attraction force is
hydrogen bonding

Strongest Attraction Force?
Ammonia, NH3?

It only contains hydrogen and carbon, so it is a nonpolar molecule. The strongest attractive force is London forces

Strongest Attraction Force? *Hexane, C6H14

hydrogen

In ______________ bonding, their must be a O, N, or F

Dipole-dipole. Has C-O bonds which are polar. It can't form hydrogen bonding because no hydrogens are bonded to O, N, or F.

Strongest Attraction Force? CH3CH2OCH2CH3

Hydrogen force. C-O and O-H bonds are polar and it does not contain an ionic charge

Strongest Attraction Force? CH3CH(OH)CH3

Dipole-dipole C-Cl bonds are polar. It can't form hydrogen bonding because no hydrogens are bonded to O, N, or F.

Strongest Attraction Force? CCl3CH3

A change in state from a liquid to a gas. Ex. Water in a liquid state boils forming water in the gaseous state

Vaporization

The change in state from a gas to a liquid. Ex. Water as a gas deposits on blades of grass forming a liquid

Condensation

The change in state from a solid directly to a gas. Ex. dry ice

Sublimation

The change in state from a gas directly to a solid. Water vapor turns directly to ice instead of liquid in freezing temperatures

Deposition

Ionic compound

Ionic, polar, or nonpolar? NaCl

Sucrose

Polar covalent compound

Vegetable oil

Nonpolar covalent compound

Soup

Contains a highly polar (often ionic) and a nonpolar part

like dissolves like" Molecules that have similar polarity and participate in the same types of attractive forces will dissolve each other

Golden rule of solubility