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Empirical Approach

an evidence-based method that draws on observation and experimentation

Critical thinking

Thinking that does not blindy accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, appraises the source, discerns hidden biases, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions

Professor Flitwick researches the mental benefit of friendships during adolescence. His research is best aligned with which approach to psychology?
cognitive psychology
positive psychology
evolutionary psychology
the biopsychosocia

positive psychology

Antonia was curious whether the wording of the questions in a life satisfaction survey may have encouraged respondents to express unusually positive levels of well-being. Antonia's concerns best illustrate
introspection
.an empiric

critical thinking

Edward Titchener is to John B. Watson as ________ is to ________.
biology; environment
inner sensations; observable behavior
mental illness; psychiatry
cognitive perspective; psychodynamic perspective

cognitive perspective; psychodynamic perspective

Rogers and Maslow were part of which school of thought in psychology?
behaviorism.
humanistic psychology.
cognitive neuroscience
behavior genetics.

humanistic psychology

By saying that it seems "nurture works on what nature provides," psychological researchers mean that we are biologically prepared with a capacity for
inborn ideas.
natural selection.
introspection.

Dr. Phial studies how people interact and react in the presence of others. In the biopsychosocial perspective, she examines the ________ influence on behavior and mental processes.
choice
social-cultural
biological
psychological
cognitive

biological

Natural selection explains that differences in ________ that contribute to survival and reproduction will most likely be passed on to following generations.
learned habits
inherited traits
levels of analysis
cultural practices

inherited traits

Psychological differences between the sexes are
of little interest to contemporary psychologists
.simply reflections of biological difference between the sexes
no longer evident in contemporary Western societies.
Far outweighed by similarities between the

far outweighed by similarities between the sexes.

Dr. Morse researches the relationship between adults' language skills and their capacity to solve mathematical problems. Dr. Morse is most likely a ________ psychologist.
cognitive
biological
clinical
social

cognitive

When researchers conduct research for the sake of building a base of knowledge, this research is most clearly examples of
the testing effect.
replication.
basic research.
positive psychology.

basic research

William James was a prominent American
psychoanalyst.
behaviorist
.functionalist
.psychiatrist.

functionalist

The rat is always right," one of psychology's early mottos, represents which aspect of scientific attitude?
humility
respect for animals
curiosity
skepticism

humility

Functionalism focused attention on the
adaptive value of thoughts and behaviors.
component elements of sensory experience.
disruptive effects of unconscious motives.
treatment of psychological disorders.

adaptive value of thoughts and behaviors

Dr. Allen interprets that the delinquent behaviors of many teens come from the pressures associated with being a member of a street gang. Her account best illustrates a(n) ________ perspective.
behavior genetics
social-cultural
neu

social-cultural

What would the neuroscience perspective most likely emphasize when explaining behavior?
Environmental circumstances
Blood chemistry
Unconscious conflicts
Subjective interpretations

blood chemistry

According to Aristotle, personality is found in the
brain.
throat.
heart.
stomach.

heart

nature is to nurture as

plato is to aristotle

An open-minded humility is necessary for the scientific attitude because it engenders a readiness to
perceive order in random events
.reject any ideas that can't be scientifically tested
.recognize the errors in our own ideas.
resp

recognize the errors in our own ideas.

The scientific attitude holds
curiosity
skepticism
humility

...

Structuralism: Early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind.

...

Functionalism: early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral process function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.

...

Amanda is often overly generous in giving her time to help others. Janie, her friend, suggests that by keeping busy this way Sherry avoids confronting her own unconscious conflicts. Janie's suggestion represents the type of explanation most typical of
Gro

...

Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory work involved experimental studies of
animal intelligence.
personality development
.social influence
.mental processes.

...

Who used introspection as his basic research tool to study people's inner sensations and mental images.
John B. Watson
Charles Darwin
Edward Titchener
B. F. Skinner

Edward Titchener

Plasticity refers to the brain's capacity to change by forming new neural pathways based on
refractory periods.
localization of function.
reuptake.

experience

In a tragic diving accident, Andrew damaged his spinal cord. As a result, his legs were paralyzed. Andrew's injury was located in his
somatic nervous system.
autonomic nervous system.
sympathetic nervous system.

central nervous system

Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential. This indicates that a neuron's reaction is
inhibited by the myelin sheath.
delayed by a refractory period.

all or none response

The central nervous system consists of
sensory and motor neurons.
somatic and autonomic systems.
Correct Answer the brain and the spinal cord.
sympathetic and parasympathetic branches.

the brain and the spinal cord

A neuron's reaction of either firing at full strength or not firing at all is described as
a refractory period.
the resting potential.
a reflexive response.

all or none response

A focus on the links between brain activity and behavior is most characteristic of ________ psychologists.
psychodynamic
cognitive
behavioral

biological

An accelerated heartbeat is to a slowed heartbeat as the ________ nervous system is to the ________ nervous system.
somatic; autonomic
autonomic; somatic
parasympathetic; sympathetic

parasympathetic; sympathetic

Animal research has revealed a general reward system related to the release of the neurotransmitter
acetylcholine.
GABA.
Correct! dopamine.
epinephrine.

dopamine

Basic automatic survival functions, such as heartbeat and breathing, are controlled by the
pons.
Correct! brainstem.
thalamus.
reticular formation.

brainstem

Substance use disorders may stem from malfunctioning reward centers in the
thalamus.
cerebellum.
reticular formation.
limbic system.

limibic system

The ________ project enables researchers to examine differences between the brains of healthy people and those with various disorders.
optogenetics
diffusion spectrum imaging
Correct! PsychENCODE
MRI

psychENCODE

To detect Mr. Ziegler's loss of brain tissue from a degenerative disease, his physicians are most likely to request that he receive a(n)
EEG.
Correct! MRI scan.
brain lesion.
PET scan.

MRI scan

The ________ relays messages between lower brain centers and the cerebral cortex.
reticular formation
pons

thalamus

S. M. is a patient who has been called "the woman with no fear," even of being threatened with a gun. Her fearlessness is best attributed to damage to her
pons.
cerebellum.
hypothalamus.
Correct! amygdala.

amygala

The amygdala consists of emotion-linked neural clusters in the
brainstem.
reticular formation.
Correct! limbic system.
cerebellum.

limbic system

Which brain structure receives information from all of the senses except smell?
hippocampus
amygdala
pons
Correct! thalamus

thalamus

The $40 million Human Connectome Project harnesses ________ technology to map neural connections across long distances within the brain. positron emission tomography electroencephalogram Correct! diffusion spectrum imaging microelectrode insertion diffusion emission tomography The part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing is called the cerebellum. Correct! medulla. amygdala. thalamus. medulla The part of the brainstem that helps to coordinate movements is called the nucleus accumbens. hippocampus. amygdala. Correct! pons. pons Human brain complexity arises from new systems built on top of older ones. The remnants of humanity's most distant past involve components of the amygdala. hippocampus. Correct! brainstem. hypothalamus. brainstem An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the surface of the brain is called a(n) fMRI. Correct Answer EEG. PET scan. You Answered MRI. EEG A limbic system reward center located in front of the hypothalamus is called the You Answered amygdala. reticular formation. pons. Correct Answer nucleus accumbens. nucleus accumbens Magnetic resonance imaging uses magnetic fields and ________ to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. Correct! radio waves brain lesions a radioactive form of glucose electrodes placed on the scalp radio waves Animal research has revealed a general reward system related to the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. GABA. Correct! dopamine. epinephrine. dopamine To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat's reticular formation. cerebellum. medulla. Correct! amygdala. amygdala A brain tumor caused extensive damage to Mr. Thorndike's hypothalamus. It is most likely that he may suffer a loss of visual perception. muscular coordination. Correct! sexual motivation. language comprehension. sexual motivation Substance use disorders may stem from malfunctioning reward centers in the thalamus. cerebellum. reticular formation. Correct! limbic system. limibic system To identify which of Lucy's brain areas was most active when she talked, neuroscientists gave her a temporarily radioactive form of glucose and a(n) fMRI. Correct! PET scan. EEG. MRI scan. PET scan After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is most likely to have difficulty reading printed words. understanding what others are saying. tasting the flavors of foods. Correct! playing his guitar. playing his guitar Human brain complexity arises from new systems built on top of older ones. The remnants of humanity's most distant past involve components of the amygdala. hippocampus. Correct! brainstem. hypothalamus. brainstem Severing a cat's reticular formation from higher brain regions causes the cat to become violently aggressive. cower in fear. experience convulsive seizures. Correct! lapse into a coma. laspe into a coma Jason lost his sense of taste due to a tumor that caused damage to a structure located on top of his brainstem. This structure is known as the amygdala. Correct Answer thalamus. You Answered medulla. hippocampus. thalamus Brandon has trouble sleeping regularly. He has difficulty falling asleep and then staying asleep. On average, he gets 4 hours of sleep each night. His ________ may not be functioning properly. thalamus hypothalamus You Answered reticular formation Correct pons An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the surface of the brain is called a(n) fMRI. Correct! EEG. PET scan. MRI. EEG Which baseball-sized structure at the rear of the brainstem serves many functions, including helping you to judge time and to discriminate sounds and textures? amygdala Correct! cerebellum hippocampus corpus callosum cerebellum The brain structure that provides a major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system is the cerebellum. amygdala. reticular formation. Correct! hypothalamus. hypothalamus James Olds and Peter Milner located reward centers in the brain structure known as the Correct! hypothalamus. cerebellum. medulla. amygdala. hypothalamus Dr. Rapport conducts research to better understand how different regions of the brain work together. He is also interested in the causes of psychological disorders. Which of the following techniques is he likely to implement in his research? Correct! anal analyses of functional connectivity Surgical destruction of brain tissue is called a(n) EEG. diffusion spectrum. Correct Answer lesion. You Answered MRI. lesion S. M. is a patient who has been called "the woman with no fear," even of being threatened with a gun. Her fearlessness is best attributed to damage to her pons. You Answered cerebellum. hypothalamus. Correct Answer amygdala. amygdala To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat's reticular formation. cerebellum. You Answered medulla. Correct Answer amygdala. amygdala Magnetic resonance imaging uses magnetic fields and ________ to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. Correct Answer radio waves brain lesions You Answered a radioactive form of glucose electrodes placed on the scalp radio waves To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task, researchers would be most likely to make use of a(n) Correct Answer fMRI. microelectrode insertion. You Answered MRI. brain lesion. fMRI The reticular formation is a nerve network that travels from the ________ into the thalamus. Correct Answer spinal cord amygdala hypothalamus You Answered cerebellum spinal cord The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regions in some patients who have schizophrenia is to use a(n) EEG. Correct! MRI. PET scan. brain lesion. MRI Conscious information processing is LEAST likely to be required for the automatic physical survival functions regulated by the You Answered hippocampus. thalamus. Correct Answer brainstem. amygdala. brainstem Along with the basal ganglia, the ________ enables nonverbal learning and skill memory. amygdala Correct! cerebellum hypothalamus nucleus accumbens cerebellum The ________ relays messages between lower brain centers and the cerebral cortex. Correct! thalamus hypothalamus reticular formation pons thalamus The amygdala is responsible for the regulation of survival mechanisms. hunger. balance. Correct! emotion. emotion With assistance from the ________, the cerebellum coordinates ________. You Answered hypothalamus; hunger and thirst amygdala; heartbeat and breathing Correct Answer pons; voluntary movement medulla; fear and rage pons; voluntary movement Which technique measures fields from the brain's natural electrical activity? lesion optogenetics You Answered EEG Correct Answer MEG MEG When the brain is unoccupied, an fMRI indicates that blood continues to flow via a web of brain regions called the reticular formation. nucleus accumbens. Correct! default network. diffusion spectrum. default networlk After experiencing a series of head injuries while playing professional football, Arie has begun to struggle with remembering the names of friends and even family members. His memory difficulties are most likely to be due to damage to his Correct Answer h hippocampus Those who survive a hippocampal brain tumor in childhood are likely to have difficulty ________ in their adulthood. getting adequate sleep Correct Answer remembering new information You Answered maintaining body balance while walking experiencing feelings remembering new information The endocrine system consists of the communication network that includes all the body's neurons. regions of the brain that regulate emotion. interneurons within the spinal cord. Correct! glands that secrete hormones. glands that secrete hormones Neurons generate electricity from a chemical process involving the exchange of Correct Answer ions. You Answered enzymes. cortisol. oxytocin. ions Dr. Wolski conducts research on the relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Dr. Wolski's research focus is most characteristic of phrenology. biological psychology. psychoanalysis. social psychology. biological psychology Dendrites are branching extensions of neurotransmitters. endorphins. neurons. glial cells. neurons The axon of a sending neuron is separated from the dendrite of a receiving neuron by a myelin sheath. neural network. glial cell. synaptic gap. synaptic gap A football quarterback can simultaneously make calculations of receiver distances, player movements, and gravitational forces. This best illustrates the activity of multiple endocrine glands. endorphin agonists. Correct! neural networks. acetylcholine ant neural networks The parasympathetic nervous system Correct! stimulates digestion and slows heartbeat. inhibits digestion and accelerates heartbeat. stimulates digestion and accelerates heartbeat. inhibits digestion and slows heartbeat. stimulates digestion and slows heartbeat Hormones are the chemical messengers of the autonomic nervous system. somatic nervous system. Correct! endocrine system. central nervous system. endrocrine system An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to Alzheimer's disease. schizophrenia. Parkinson's disease. Correct! depression. depression The master gland of the endocrine system is the thyroid gland. adrenal gland. Correct! pituitary gland. pancreas. pituatary gland Plasticity refers to the brain's capacity to change by forming new neural pathways based on refractory periods. localization of function. Correct! experience. reuptake. experience Excitatory signals to a neuron must exceed inhibitory signals by a minimum intensity in order to trigger reuptake. a refractory period. Correct! an action potential. selective permeability. an action potential Degeneration of the myelin sheath results in reuptake. Correct! multiple sclerosis. schizophrenia. an action potential. multiple sclerosis A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the synapse. agonist. Correct! action potential. refractory period. action potential Information travels through axons that are bundled into the cables we call interneurons. action potentials. Correct! nerves. reflex pathways. nerves Sensory neurons are located in the synaptic gaps. endocrine system. Correct! peripheral nervous system. myelin sheath. peripheral nervous system Dr. Wolski conducts research on the relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Dr. Wolski's research focus is most characteristic of phrenology. Correct! biological psychology. psychoanalysis. social psychology. biological psychology Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to muscles in your hands by the ________ nervous system. Correct Answer peripheral You Answered parasympathetic sympathetic autonomic peripheral Jason's intensely uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms following heroin use were probably due in part to a reduction in his body's normal production of You Answered dopamine. epinephrine. acetylcholine. Correct Answer endorphins. endorphins The ovaries in females and the testes in males are part of the somatic nervous system. Correct! endocrine system. autonomic nervous system. central nervous system. endocrine A drug molecule that increases a neurotransmitter's action is called a(n) antagonist. endorphin. Correct Answer agonist. You Answered steroid. agonist Schizophrenia is most closely linked to an oversupply of the neurotransmitter Correct Answer dopamine. You Answered epinephrine. acetylcholine. serotonin. dopamine An action potential is generated by the movement of ________ through an axon membrane. glial cells glands neurotransmitters Correct! ions ions Endorphin agonists are likely to ________ one's immediate pain, and endorphin antagonists are likely to ________ one's immediate pain. Correct Answer decrease; increase You Answered increase; decrease increase; increase decrease; decrease decrease; increase Mr. Anderson suffers from Parkinson's disease and his shaking arm movements are so severe that he has difficulty feeding or dressing himself without help. His symptoms are most likely to be linked with an undersupply of the neurotransmitter cortisol. Corr dopamine Reuptake refers to the movement of neurotransmitter molecules across a synaptic gap. release of hormones into the bloodstream. You Answered inflow of positively charged ions through an axon membrane. Correct Answer reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron The strengthening of the brain's synaptic connections facilitates the formation of interneurons. endorphins. Correct Answer neural networks. You Answered glial cells. neural networks Neurons that function within the brain and spinal cord are called You Answered sensory neurons. Correct Answer interneurons. endorphins. motor neurons. interneurons Gerald has experienced increasing difficulties with muscle weakness, motor coordination, and body balance, which his doctor has diagnosed as multiple sclerosis. These symptoms are most likely to be directly linked with the degeneration of endorphins synap myelin sheath brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the synapse. agonist. Correct! action potential. refractory period. action potential Sensory neurons are ________ neurons, and motor neurons are ________ neurons. You Answered agonist; antagonist Correct Answer afferent; efferent antagonist; agonist efferent; afferent afferent; efferent The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the movements of your mouth and jaws as you eat is called the Correct! somatic nervous system. sympathetic nervous system. endocrine system. autonomic nervous system. somatic nervous system Jos� has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of glutamate. dopamine. acetylcholine. Correct! endorphins. endorphhins In a tragic diving accident, Andrew damaged his spinal cord. As a result, his legs were paralyzed. Andrew's injury was located in his somatic nervous system. autonomic nervous system. You Answered sympathetic nervous system. Correct Answer central nervous central nervous system The release of epinephrine into the bloodstream is most likely to Correct Answer increase blood sugar. lower blood pressure. You Answered stimulate digestion. decrease perspiration. increase blood sugar Which neurotransmitter influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion? You Answered ACh Correct Answer dopamine serotonin GABA dopamine The nervous system is the complete set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream. You Answered the collection of bundled axons that form neural cables carrying information to body muscles. an organism's complete set of automatic reflex response the electrochemical communication network that includes all the body's neurons. The strengthening of the brain's synaptic connections facilitates the formation of interneurons. You Answered endorphins. Correct Answer neural networks. glial cells. neural networks The somatic nervous system is a component of the ________ nervous system. perpheral Information travels through axons that are bundled into the cables we call nerves You come home one night to find a burglar in your house. Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire. These physical reactions are triggered by the somatic nervous system. Correct! sympathetic nervous system. parasympathetic nervous system. sensory sympathetic nervous system Some neurons enable you to grasp objects by relaying outgoing messages to the muscles in your arms and hands. These neurons are called interneurons. sensory neurons. You Answered neurotransmitters. Correct Answer motor neurons. motor neurons Information is carried from the central nervous system to the body's tissues by interneurons. You Answered sensory neurons. Correct Answer motor neurons. adrenal glands. motor neurons Stacey is eating dinner while watching her favorite movie. Which part of the nervous system is responsible for stimulating digestion? Correct Answer autonomic You Answered sympathetic somatic peripheral autonomic The central nervous system consists of sensory and motor neurons. somatic and autonomic systems. Correct! the brain and the spinal cord. sympathetic and parasympathetic branches. the brain and the spinal cord A slap on the back is more painful than a pat on the back because a slap triggers You Answered the release of endorphins. more intense neural impulses. the release of GABA. Correct Answer more neurons to fire, and to fire more often. more neurons to fire, and to fire more often The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems work together to keep you in a steady internal state called depolarization. reuptake. Correct Answer homeostasis. You Answered the resting potential. homeostasis A synapse is a(n) You Answered chemical messenger that triggers muscle contractions. automatic response to sensory input. Correct Answer junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron. neural cable containing many axons. junction between a sending neuron and a recieving neuron Which part of the nervous system controls our glands and internal organ muscles? automonic Which neurotransmitter plays the most direct role in learning and memory? actylcholine An undersupply of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter known as ________ is linked to seizures. glutamate Correct Answer GABA You Answered serotonin ACh GABA One function of glial cells is to provide nutrients to neurons The brain region that controls the pituitary gland is the hypothalamus During a laboratory game, those given a nasal squirt of ________ rather than a placebo were more likely to trust strangers with their money. epinephrine Correct! oxytocin dopamine serotonin oxytocin Which division of the autonomic nervous system arouses the body and mobilizes its energy in stressful situations? the parasympathetic nervous system Correct! the sympathetic nervous system the somatic nervous system the central nervous system the sympathetic nervous system Neurotransmitters are released from knob-like terminals at the end of the dendrites. cell body. Correct! axon. myelin sheath. axon Kendra and several classmates are studying for an upcoming exam. As they talk, the level of oxytocin in Kendra's bloodstream begins to rise. This is most likely to lead Kendra to experience increased feelings of social irritation. envy. Correct Answer tru trust The axon of a sending neuron is separated from the dendrite of a receiving neuron by a myelin sheath. You Answered neural network. glial cell. Correct Answer synaptic gap. synaptic gap The axon of a sending neuron is separated from the dendrite of a receiving neuron by a myelin sheath. You Answered neural network. glial cell. Correct Answer synaptic gap. ... Which brain cells play a role in learning, thinking, and memory by communicating with neurons? endorphins Correct Answer glial cells You Answered agonists myelin cells glial cells In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ________ of a single neuron. dendrites to the axon to the cell body axon to the cell body to the dendrites Correct! dendrites to the cell body to the axon axon to the dendrites to the cell body to the axon Stacey and her boyfriend had a fight earlier in the day. While they made up after the fight, Stacey still feels angry hours later. Why is this? Central nervous system messages last an extended period. Peripheral nervous system messages last an extended pe Endocrine system messages last an extended period Although James lost some manual dexterity following brain damage from a small stroke, the development of new neural pathways enabled him to regain most of his lost manual agility. This best illustrates the value of action potentials. phrenology. plasticit plasticity Neuron-produced chemicals that carry messages to other neurons or to muscles and glands are called synapses. You Answered interneurons. dendrites. neurotransmitters. neurotransmitters The hypothalamus influences the ________ to send messages to the ________. adrenal glands; pancreas Correct Answer pituitary; endocrine glands You Answered motor neurons; sensory neurons somatic nervous system; autonomic nervous system pituitary; endocrine glands The resting potential of an axon results from the fact that an axon membrane is encased by a myelin sheath. Correct! selectively permeable. sensitive to neurotransmitter molecules. part of a larger neural network. selectively permeable A slap on the back is more painful than a pat on the back because a slap triggers the release of endorphins. more intense neural impulses. the release of GABA. Correct! more neurons to fire, and to fire more often. more neurons to fire, and to fire more often Botulin poisoning from improperly canned food causes paralysis by blocking the release of You Answered endorphins. epinephrine. Correct Answer acetylcholine. dopamine. acetylcholine The ________ occurs at an electrical charge of about -55 millivolts and the ________ occurs at a charge of about +40 millivolts. action potential; resting potential resting potential; threshold threshold; resting potential Correct! resting potential; acti resting potential; action potential Although phrenology incorrectly suggested that bumps on the skull revealed a person's character traits, phrenology did succeed in focusing attention on synaptic gaps. You Answered action potentials. Correct Answer the localization of function. endorphins. the location of function Opiate drugs ________ mood and ________ pain. You Answered depress; increase Correct Answer elevate; decrease depress; decrease elevate; increase elevate decrease A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus is called a(n) reflex An axon is a cell that serves as the basic building block of the nervous system. a layer of fatty tissue that encases the fibers of many neurons. a molecule that blocks neurotransmitter receptor sites. Correct! the extension of a neuron that carries messa ... The release of hormones by the adrenal glands is most likely to trigger the fight or flight response If a professor accused you of cheating on a test, your adrenal glands would probably release ________ into your bloodstream. endorphins epinephrine Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential. This indicates that a neuron's reaction is inhibited by the myelin sheath. delayed by a refractory period. Correct! an all-or-non all or none response The endocrine gland that helps regulate the level of calcium in the blood is the parathyroid Neurons that function within the brain and spinal cord are called innerneurons The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates correctly located the mind in the brain The hypothalamus influences the ________ to send messages to the ________. adrenal glands; pancreas Correct Answer pituitary; endocrine glands motor neurons; sensory neurons You Answered somatic nervous system; autonomic nervous system ... Madison is experiencing symptoms of paralysis after eating food contaminated by botulin. Her paralysis is most likely to be relieved by a drug that functions as a(n) Correct Answer ACh agonist. You Answered serotonin agonist. ACh antagonist. serotonin ant ACh agonist Neurotransmitters are released from knob-like terminals at the end of the axon The ________ is similar to the nervous system in that both produce molecules that act on receptors elsewhere in the body. endocrine system Neural networks refer to You Answered the branching extensions of a neuron. interrelated clusters of neurons in the central nervous system. neural cables containing many axons. junctions between sending and receiving neurons. interrelated clusters of neurons in the central nervous system The occipital lobes are to ________ as the temporal lobes are to ________. hearing; sensing movement seeing; sensing touch Correct! seeing; hearing speaking; hearing seeing; hearing The control of speech production by the left rather than the right hemisphere of the brain best illustrates neurogenesis. Correct! lateralization. cognitive neural prosthetics. plasticity. laternization Deaf people who use sign language typically demonstrate greater mathematical competence than hearing persons. Correct! process language in their left cerebral hemisphere. have better communication skills than hearing persons. have a smaller corpus callosu process language in their left cerebral hemisphere The classic case of railroad worker Phineas Gage best illustrated that frontal lobe damage can trigger muscle spasms. enhance moral reasoning skills. Correct! alter one's personality. facilitate neurogenesis. alter one's personality People who suffer partial paralysis as a result of damage to the ________will sometimes obstinately claim they can move a paralyzed limb. Correct! right cerebral hemisphere corpus callosum left cerebral hemisphere occipital lobes right cerebral hemisphere The most extensive regions of the brain are involved in higher mental functions such as memory and reasoning. These regions are called the somatosensory cortex. hippocampus. corpus callosum. Correct! association areas. association areas Physical exercise, sex, sleep, and nonstressful but stimulating environments are natural ways to promote lateralization. neurogenesis. diffusion spectrum imaging. cognitive neural prosthetics. neurogenesis Those whose corpus callosum is surgically severed are said to be patients with brain plasticity. brain fissures. neurogenesis. Correct! split brains. split brains In a recent car accident, Tamiko sustained damage to his right cerebral hemisphere. This injury is most likely to reduce Tamiko's ability to facially express emotions. solve arithmetic problems. understand simple verbal requests. correctly pronounce famil facially express emotions Optic nerves transmit information from the ________ visual field of ________ to the left cerebral hemisphere. left; only the left eye right; only the right eye left; only the right eye right; both the right and left eyes right; both the right and the left eyes The visual cortex is activated when blind people read Braille. This best illustrates plasticity Knowing that you will be punished for breaking Mom's favorite dish is a function of the somatosensory cortex. corpus callosum. association areas. motor cortex. association areas Among deaf people, a temporal lobe area normally dedicated to hearing may begin to process visual signals. This best illustrates the impact of plasticity. neurogenesis. lateralization. cognitive neural prosthetics. plasticity Thanks to the release of carbon isotopes in nuclear weapons tests, researchers have been able to detect the process of neurogenesis in the motor cortex. corpus callosum. somatosensory cortex. hippocampus. hippocampus People's failure to recognize themselves in a mirror is most likely to be associated with damage to the somatosensory cortex. left cerebral hemisphere. corpus callosum. right cerebral hemisphere. right cerebral hemisphere The fact that the ability to interpret and integrate sensory information with stored memories is lost following damage to the ________ disconfirms the claim that we really use only 10 percent of our brain. association areas In a recent car accident, Tamiko sustained damage to his right cerebral hemisphere. This injury is most likely to reduce Tamiko's ability to facially express emotions. solve arithmetic problems. understand simple verbal requests. correctly pronounce famil facially express emotions The somatosensory cortex is most critical for our sense of touch Knowing that you will be punished for breaking Mom's favorite dish is a function of the somatosensory cortex. corpus callosum. association areas. motor cortex. association areas People who suffer partial paralysis as a result of damage to the ________will sometimes obstinately claim they can move a paralyzed limb. right cerebral cortex The inability to recognize familiar faces even though one can clearly see and describe features of the faces is associated with damage to the right ________ lobe. temporal lobe The motor cortex is located in the ________ lobes. frontal lobes A picture of a dog is briefly flashed in the left visual field of a split-brain patient. At the same time a picture of a boy is flashed in the right visual field. In identifying what she saw, the patient would be most likely to use her left hand to point verbally report that she a boy John and Samantha are studying for their upcoming psychology class when John states, "I wonder what it would be like if we used all of our brain, instead of only 10 percent of it." Which of the following would be the best response by Samantha? "I complete that is actually a myth. we use all of our brain Which portion of the cerebral cortex is located nearest the top of the head just behind the frontal lobes? occipital lobes hippocampus Correct! parietal lobes temporal lobes parietal lobes Which of the following is NOT true of the brain's association areas? More intelligent animals have larger association areas. Lower-level species have smaller association areas. The association areas link sensory information with stored memories. Correct! more intelligent animals have smaller association areas A neurosurgeon begins to sedate the entire left cerebral hemisphere of a patient, who is instructed to count aloud with both arms in the air. What will most likely happen? The patient's left arm will fall limp, and the patient will become speechless. Corr The patients right arm will fall limp, and the patient will become speechless. After he suffered a stroke, Mr. Santore's physical coordination skills and responsiveness to sensory stimulation quickly returned to normal. Unfortunately, however, he could no longer figure out how to find his way around his neighborhood. It is most like an association area Which portion of the cerebral cortex lies directly behind the forehead and is involved in speaking, muscle movements, and making plans? frontal cortex Brain plasticity may contribute to the effectiveness of constraint-induced therapy Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back? parietal Thanks to the release of carbon isotopes in nuclear weapons tests, researchers have been able to detect the process of neurogenesis in the hippocampus During open-brain surgery, Adam's left ankle twitched whenever the surgeon electrically stimulated a specific area within Adam's right frontal lobe Falsely hearing a sound in the absence of any external stimulus is called hallucinations Christy failed to notice that she received her ice cream in a sugar cone rather than a waffle cone as she had requested. She later indicated to another customer that she preferred sugar cones over waffle cones. Christy's behavior most clearly illustrates choice blindness The interdisciplinary study of the linkages between brain activity and mental processes is known as evolutionary psychology. neurology. behaviorism. Correct! cognitive neuroscience. cognitive neuroscience It has been estimated that our five senses take in ________ bits of information per second while we process only ________ bits of information per second. 1,000; 10 11,000; 20 101,000; 30 Correct! 11,000,000; 40 11,000,000; 40 Crashes and near-crashes have been observed to ________ when teen drivers are reaching for a cell phone and to ________ when they are dialing a cell phone. neither increase nor decrease; neither increase nor decrease neither increase nor decrease; increas increase; increase The experience of popout illustrates that some stimuli almost inevitably trigger blindsight. You Answered change blindness. selective attention. choice blindness. selective attention Which specialty area would be most interested in identifying the brain-wave patterns associated with a person's conscious recognition of familiar faces or voices? evolutionary psychology cognitive neuroscience behavior genetics behaviorism cognitive neuroscience Attention to her long-term educational goals enables Alicia to avoid thoughtlessly skipping difficult class assignments. This best illustrates the adaptive value of change blindness. consciousness. the cocktail party effect. popout. consciousness Cognitive neuroscience is most directly concerned with studying selective attention and accidents. evolution and natural selection. selective attention and daydreams. brain activity and thought processes. brain activity and thought processes June's correct solution to a novel arithmetic problem was simultaneously facilitated by unconscious inferences and the conscious application of mathematical principles. This best illustrates the value of the popout phenomenon. a biopsychosocial approach. dual processing While a man provided directions to a construction worker, two experimenters rudely interrupted by passing between them carrying a door. The man's failure to notice that the construction worker was replaced by a different person during this interruption il change blindness Texting and talking on the cell phone while driving is responsible for ________ percent of traffic accidents. 12 28 45 76 28 The school of thought in psychology that turned away from the study of consciousness during the first half of the last century was behaviorism. psychoanalysis. humanistic psychology. evolutionary psychology. behaviorism Compared with unconscious information processing, conscious information processing is relatively fast and especially effective for solving new problems. slow and especially effective for solving new problems. fast and especially effective for solving rout slow and especially effective for solving new problems Although many experienced drivers cannot accurately explain how they do it, most know how to turn successfully from a left to a right lane of traffic. This best illustrates the value of sequential processing. blindsight. choice blindness. unconscious proc unconscious processing Corolina was not aware of what her mother was telling her while she was focused on a phone voice message from a friend. Her experience best illustrates dual processing. the cocktail party effect. popout. blindsight. the cocktail party effect Since 1960, psychology has regained an interest in consciousness as psychologists of all persuasions began affirming the importance of evolutionary psychology. choice blindness. neuroscience. cognition. cognition The possibility that our mental state might have a direct impact on our actions was most clearly dismissed by evolutionary psychologists. behaviorists. cognitive neuroscientists. behavior geneticists. behaviorists Sequential processing refers to the formation of complex neural networks. consciously processing one aspect of a problem at a time. the brain's ability to automatically regulate basic life-sustaining processes such as breathing. the coordinated brain-wide consciously processing one aspect of a problem at a time. Consciousness is to unconsciousness as ________ is to ________. sequential processing; parellel processing A bank teller was so distracted by the sight of a bank robber's weapon that she failed to perceive important features of the criminal's physical appearance. This best illustrates the impact of parallel processing. change blindness. selective attention. bl selective attention The interdisciplinary study of the linkages between brain activity and mental processes is known as evolutionary psychology. neurology. behaviorism. cognitive neuroscience. cognitive neuroscience The simultaneous processing of information at both conscious and unconscious levels is called dual processing After turning to wave at one of her friends during lunch, Jessica fails to notice that her new cell phone, which had been right next to her lunch plate, has disappeared. Her oversight best illustrates change blindness Compared with parallel processing, sequential processing tends to be ________ conscious and better for solving ________ problems. less; novel more; familiar less; familiar more; novel more; novel A capacity to monitor simultaneously the color, shape, and motion of a flying kite best illustrates parellel processing the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously is called parellel processing Most psychologists define consciousness as our subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment. mental processes. observations of behavior. waking awareness and altered states of observation. our subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment The possibility that our mental state might have a direct impact on our actions was most clearly dismissed by behaviorists Attention to her long-term educational goals enables Alicia to avoid thoughtlessly skipping difficult class assignments. This best illustrates the adaptive value of consciousness One study simultaneously delivered a recording of men talking in participants' one ear and a recording of women talking in participants' other ear. When participants were assigned to pay attention to the women, 70 percent failed to hear one of the men rep inattentional deafness The experience of popout illustrates that some stimuli almost inevitably trigger selective attention The increased risk of car accidents for drivers talking on a cell phone is primarily due to the visual distraction of glancing at one's cell phone. no greater than the risk for drivers chatting with other passengers. no greater than the risk for drivers l the same for those using a handheld and those using hands-free phones Compared with parallel processing, sequential processing tends to be ________ conscious and better for solving ________ problems. less; novel more; familiar less; familiar more; novel more; novel Consciousness contributes to all of the following EXCEPT reflecting on past experiences. setting goals for the future. being shocked by the present situation. focusing our attention to learn complex tasks. being shocked by the present situation Which of the following is NOT a way consciousness aids survival, according to evolutionary psychologists? Consciousness helps us cope with new situations. You Answered Consciousness helps us act in our long-term interests. Consciousness helps us seek shor consciousness helps us seek short-term pleasures Although unable to report the width of a block in front of her, a woman identified as D. F. could grasp the block with just the right finger-thumb distance. Her experience best illustrates blindsight Although many experienced drivers cannot accurately explain how they do it, most know how to turn successfully from a left to a right lane of traffic. This best illustrates the value of unconsicous processing A visual perception track enables most people to recognize objects at nearly the same time that a visual action track enables them to avoid bumping into the objects. This best illustrates sequential processing. You Answered change blindness. dual processi dual processing Exposure to bright light causes the thyroid gland to suppress the production of melatonin. thyroid gland to increase the production of melatonin. suprachiasmatic nucleus to increase the pineal gland's production of melatonin. Correct! suprachiasmatic nucl suprachiasmatic nucleus to suppress the pineal gland's production of melatonin Which theory emphasizes that dreams simulate reality by drawing on our current understandings of reality? wish-fulfillment theory neural activation theory information-processing theory cognitive development theory cognitive-development theory According to Freud, the dreams of adults can be traced back to erotic wishes. stressful life events. biological needs for brain stimulation. random bursts of neural activity. erotic wishes Particularly among men, sleep apnea is linked with night terrors. sleepwalking. narcolepsy. obesity. obesity The activation of light-sensitive proteins in our eyes' retinas signals our brain to decrease the production of free radicals. benzene. melatonin. dopamine. melatonin Identical twins have more similar sleep patterns than do fraternal twins, and people in industrialized nations go to bed later at night than their counterparts of a century ago. These facts best illustrate that sleep patterns are affected by both rapid ey heredity and environment Sequences of images notable for their hallucinatory quality are most likely to be associated with sleep apnea. REM sleep. cyberloafing. high waking metabolism. REM sleep Research indicates that total time spent in REM sleep is especially high in males. infants. females. the elderly. infants During REM sleep, your skeletal muscles are relaxed because messages from the motor cortex are blocked by the brainstem. hypothalamus. suprachiasmatic nucleus. amygdala. brainstem Which of the following is the best advice for a person concerned about occasional insomnia? Relax and drink a glass of milk before bedtime. Eat a big dinner late in the evening so you'll feel drowsy at bedtime. Relax with a drink of your favorite alcoholi relax and drink a glass of milk before bedtime Circadian rhythm refers to the pattern of emotional ups and downs we routinely experience. a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24?hour cycle. the experience of sleep apnea following a lengthy transoceanic plane flight. a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24 hour cycle Evidence suggests that we consolidate our memories of recent life events through sleeptalking. EEG recordings. sleep apnea. Correct! REM sleep. REM sleep Melissa is a graduate student in a theological studies program. The fact that her dreams often involve abstract theological issues and biblical metaphors is best explained by wish-fulfillment theory. cognitive development theory. neural activation theory. information-processing theory Nightmares are to ________ as night terrors are to ________. REM sleep; NREM-3 sleep delta waves; alpha waves NREM-3 sleep; NREM-1 sleep NREM-1 sleep; REM sleep REM sleep; NREM-3 sleep Most college students are "owls," with performance ________ across the day. Most older adults are "larks," with performance ________ as the day progresses. improving; declining declining; improving declining; staying the same staying the same; declining improving; declining Delta waves are most clearly associated with ________ sleep. NREM-1 NREM-2 NREM-3 REM NREM-3 An EEG shows bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity during ________ sleep. NREM-1 NREM-2 NREM-3 REM NREM 2 Hypnagogic sensations are most closely associated with ________ sleep. NREM-1 NREM-2 NREM-3 REM NREM-1 During lunch your friend tells you about a recent dream. In her dream, while at home she was attacked, beaten, and robbed. What would your response be? "That's a strange dream." "You should be extra careful. It may be a premonition." "I read recently that That's crazy!" But being attacked is one of the most common themes in dreams Of the following people, who will be LESS likely to resist temptation to the sight of food? Bree, who is on a diet Scott, who is fasting for religious reasons Parker, who is well rested Margo, who has not gotten enough sleep the past few days Margo, who has not gotten enough sleep the past few days. Sleep deprivation ________ the production of body fat by ________ levels of the stress hormone cortisol. stimulates; increasing inhibits; increasing stimulates; decreasing inhibits; decreasing stimulates; increasing Charlize suffers from insomnia. Which of the following is NOT a natural sleep aid that she can try? Exercise regularly but not in the late evening. Watch the time closely so that she goes to bed on time. Dim lights and relax before bedtime. Sleep on a reg Watch the time closely so that she goes to bed on time REM sleep is reduced by alcohol and reduced by sleeping pills. increased by alcohol and reduced by sleeping pills. reduced by alcohol and increased by sleeping pills. increased by alcohol and increased by sleeping pills reduced by alcohol and reduced by sleeping pills. During sleep, memories stored in the ________ are moved to permanent storage in areas of the cortex. thalamus suprachiasmatic nucleus amygdala hippocampus hippocampus Sleep has been known to reactivate recent experiences that are stored in the hippocampus and move them into permanent storage. This is known as the process of recuperation. consolidation. creativity. desynchronization. consolidation Nightmares are to ________ as night terrors are to ________. REM sleep; NREM-3 sleep delta waves; alpha waves NREM-3 sleep; NREM-1 sleep NREM-1 sleep; REM sleep REM sleep; NREM 3 sleep During a heated argument with his teenage daughter, Mr. Reid suddenly fell asleep. Mr. Reid apparently suffers from narcolepsy. insomnia. You Answered sleep apnea. REM rebound. nacrolepsy Sequences of images notable for their hallucinatory quality are most likely to be associated with sleep apnea. REM sleep. cyberloafing. high waking metabolism. REM sleep A need to take larger and larger doses of sleeping pills to avoid insomnia is an indication of narcolepsy. tolerance. sleep apnea. REM rebound. tolerance Freud called the remembered story line of a dream its ________ content. manifest paradoxical hypnagogic circadian manifest Most animals placed under unnatural constant illumination have more difficulty sleeping thanks to decreased production of leptin. cortisol. melatonin. free radicals. meltonin Three hours after she goes to sleep, Shoshanna's heart rate increases, her breathing becomes more rapid, and her eyes move rapidly under her closed lids. Research suggests that Shoshanna is dreaming. emitting delta waves. about to sleepwalk. You Answered dreaming The body is internally aroused, with waking-like brain activity, yet asleep and externally calm during which sleep stage? paradoxical sleep NREM-2 You Answered NREM-1 NREM-3 paradoxical sleep The brain waves associated with REM sleep are most similar to those of NREM-1 sleep. You Answered NREM-2 sleep. NREM-3 sleep. an awake but relaxed state. NREM-1 sleep On the Monday after the "spring forward" to daylight savings time, people show a higher-than-normal incidence of sleep apnea. narcolepsy. cyberloafing. night terrors. cyberloafing A recurring difficulty in falling or staying asleep is called narcolepsy. insomnia. sleep apnea. paradoxical sleep. insomnia Shelley has not had enough sleep in the past week. She is at an increased risk of having a driving accident because her lack of sleep diminishes her cortisol levels. REM rebound. attentional focus. hypnagogic sensations. attentional focus With the approach of night, our body temperature begins to drop. This best illustrates the dynamics of the hypnagogic state. circadian rhythm. You Answered alpha wave pattern. REM rebound. circadian rhythm Which theory suggests that dreams are mental responses to random bursts of neural stimulation? cognitive development theory information-processing theory activation-synthesis theory wish-fulfillment theory activation-synthesis theory After suffering a trauma, people commonly report nightmares. One of the benefits of these nightmares is that they help prevent paradoxical sleep. reduce sleep apnea. REM rebound. extinguish daytime fears. extinguish daytime fears Gregory suffers from insomnia and is often sleep deprived. Which of the following effects is he NOT likely to experience? decreased ability to focus attention You Answered increased risk of hypertension decrease in hunger-suppressing ghrelin slower reacti decrease in hunger-suppressing ghrelin The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep are called EEGs. Correct Answer delta waves. You Answered REM rebound. alpha waves. delta waves After sleeping for about an hour and a half, Jos� enters a phase of paradoxical sleep. He is likely to be easily awakened. have slower, more regular breathing. You Answered emit slower brain waves. have very relaxed muscles. have relaxed muscles Sleep deprivation had been found to ________ metabolic rate and ________ limbic brain responses to the mere sight of food. increase; enhance decrease; diminish increase; diminish decrease; enhance decrease; enchance Alexis most enjoys talking and socializing with friends late in the evening. Her mother, however, is most energized for social interactions about an hour after breakfast. This difference between Alexis and her mother is best explained by the fact that age circadian rhythm Sitting up in bed, talking nonsense, and appearing highly distressed during REM-3 sleep is most characteristic of narcolepsy. sleep apnea. night terrors. You Answered REM rebound. night terrors After flying from London to New York, Arthur experienced extra hours of daylight and had a restless, sleepless night. His problem was most likely caused by a disruption of his narcolepsy. circadian rhythm. hypnagogic sensations. sleep paralysis. circadian rhythm When Celeste was unable to obtain her regular supply of heroin, she began to develop pain and an intense craving for the drug. Celeste was experiencing symptoms of tolerance. hallucinations. reuptake. withdrawal. withdrawal If heavy drinking follows a period of moderate drinking, people may poison themselves with an overdose because the moderate drinking stimulates their secretion of serotonin. reduces their body's level of free radicals. depresses their vomiting response. i depresses their vomiting response Women who have been drinking alcohol become ________ disposed to casual sex, and men who have been drinking become ________ disposed to casual sex. less; more more; less less; less more; more more; more The reckless, aggressive behavior that may follow alcohol consumption best illustrates that alcohol may act as a methamphetamine. disinhibitor. hallucinogen. stimulant. disinhibitor Alcohol consumption is likely to ________ attention to an arousing provocation and ________ attention to normal inhibitions. decrease; increase increase; decrease decrease; decrease increase; increase increase; decrease University men were shown an erotic movie clip. Compared with those who thought they had recently consumed a nonalcoholic beverage, men who believed they had recently consumed an alcoholic beverage were more likely to report having strong sexual fantasies more likely to report having strong sexual fantasoes and less likely to report having feelings of guilt Kara's craving for psychoactive drugs is so strong that she is unable to function at work or maintain important relationships with her family. Kara most clearly shows symptoms of sensory deprivation. a near-death experience. substance use disorder. dehydr substance use disorder THC, the active ingredient in ________, is classified as a ________. marijuana; hallucinogen marijuana; stimulant cocaine; stimulant cocaine; hallucinogen marijuana; hallucinogen U.S. sixth graders ________ their friends' use of marijuana, and university students ________ their fellow students' enthusiasm for alcohol. underestimate; overestimate overestimate; underestimate underestimate; underestimate overestimate; overestimate overestimate; overestimate Psychoactive drugs influence neurotransmission by stimulating, mimicking, or ________ the activity of neurotransmitters. synthesizing inhibiting intoxicating dehydrating inhibiting Depressants are drugs that Correct! calm neural activity and slow body functions. excite neural activity and speed up body functions. depress neural activity and temporarily lessen pain and anxiety. stimulate the central nervous system. calm neural activity and slow body functions Cocaine, amphetamines, Ecstasy, nicotine, and even caffeine are examples of barbiturates. opiates. stimulants. amphetamines. stimulant's Which drugs are most likely to be prescribed as tranquilizers? amphetamines barbiturates hallucinogens You Answered opiates barbiturates Morphine and heroin are amphetamines. opiates. hallucinogens. barbiturates. opiates Research on the use of addictive drugs indicates that less than one-third of Americans who have ever smoked cigarettes have ever quit. regular marijuana smokers typically need to take progressively larger doses to feel the same effect. Correct! many peopl many people do voluntarily stop using addictive drugs without any treatment The tendency to perceive a moving light in the night sky as belonging to an airplane rather than a moving meteor best illustrates the impact of signal detection. sensory adaptation. perceptual set. bottom-up processing. perceptual set Subliminally presented stimuli can sometimes be consciously perceived. effectively influence purchases of consumer goods. increase our absolute thresholds for visual images. are usually mentally processed as completely as any other stimuli. can sometimes be consciously percieved After a photo of a nude man or woman was flashed and immediately masked before being perceived, people's attention was unconsciously drawn to images in a way that reflected their perceptual set. absolute threshold. sexual orientation. You Answered differe sexual orientation Shelly is shopping when she runs into a friend from high school. Based on information provided in the text, how long will it take Shelly to recognize her friend? Correct Answer less than a second You Answered 2 seconds 30 seconds almost a minute less than a second Photographs of people are rated more positively if they are presented immediately after a subliminally flashed image of kittens. This best illustrates the impact of sensory adaptation. the just noticeable difference. priming. prosopagnosia. priming Scary-sounding music accompanied a movie scene in which mountain climbers scaled a steep slope. The fact that the music made the climbing appear more dangerous to viewers illustrates that perceptions are influenced by emotion. sensory adaptation. prosopag emotion ter gazing at an angry face, you immediately turn to look at a morphed blend of an angry and a scared face. The face appears scared to you. This best illustrates the impact of You Answered Weber's law. Correct Answer sensory adaptation. subliminal sensati sensory adaption While listening to sad rather than happy music, people are more likely to perceive a spoken word as mourning rather than morning. This best illustrates that perception is influenced by sensory adaptation. subliminal stimuli. Weber's law. Correct! top-down top down processing A psychophysicist would be most directly concerned with our psychological reactions to physical stress. You Answered the effects of heredity on the endocrine system. the effect of neurotransmitters on depression. Correct Answer the relationship between th the relationship between the wavelength of light and the experience of color.. Berdine has developed cataracts in both eyes, preventing her from being able to identify even her mother's face. Berdine most clearly suffers a deficiency in priming. perceptual set. Correct! bottom-up processing. sensory adaptation. bottom-up processing Giulio's bag of marbles is twice as heavy as Jim's. If it takes 5 extra marbles to make Jim's bag feel heavier, it will take 10 extra marbles to make Giulio's bag feel heavier. This best illustrates bottom-up processing. perceptual set. sensory adaptation Weber's law The principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage for their difference to be perceived is known as prosopagnosia. Correct Answer Weber's law. You Answered signal detection. sensory adaptation. Weber's law The process of receiving and representing stimulus energies by the sensory receptors and the nervous system is called priming. You Answered sensory adaptation. top-down processing. Correct Answer sensation. sensation When Rick learned that many students had received a failing grade on the midterm exam, he was no longer disappointed by his C grade. His experience best illustrates the importance of sensory adaptation. subliminal sensation. context effects. You Answered context effects After hearing rumors about the outbreak of an infectious disease, Alyosha began to perceive his normal aches and pains as disease-related symptoms. His reaction best illustrates the impact of You Answered difference thresholds. sensory adaptation. sublimi perceptual set Samantha just lost 40 pounds. What will she experience when walking up the stairs at work? The stairs will seem difficult to walk up. She will view the stairs as steep. You Answered She will be out of breath by the time she gets to the top of the stairs. The stairs will not seem as steep to her now. Although Sue Yen sees her chemistry professor several times a week, she didn't recognize the professor when she saw her in the grocery store. This best illustrates the importance of You Answered bottom-up processing. Correct Answer context effects. primin context effects If a partially deaf person's hearing ability ________, his or her absolute threshold for sound ________. You Answered improves; remains unchanged worsens; decreases worsens; remains unchanged Correct Answer improves; decreases improves; decreases Stereotypes are mental conceptions that can strongly influence the way we interpret the behaviors of individuals belonging to specific racial or ethnic groups. A stereotype is most similar to a signal detector. You Answered sensory adaptation. Correct Ans perceptual set In one study, a pictured woman was perceived by some as balancing a box on her head and by others as sitting under a window. The study best illustrated that perceptions are influenced by sensory adaptation. masking stimuli. context effects. subliminal sen context effects he study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them is called transduction. signal detection. Correct! psychophysics. Weber's law. psychophysics A softball may appear smaller to batters who are discouraged by their poor performance than to batters who are hitting well. This best illustrates that perceptions are influenced by emotion!!!!! After learning that her new college roommate had experienced several depressive episodes during her high school years, Erin incorrectly perceived her roommate's laughter as artificial and phony. This best illustrates the impact of You Answered difference perceptual set Jake's excellent peripheral vision enabled him to detect a brief flash of light far to his left, even though he couldn't recognize what he had seen. His experience best illustrates top-down processing. You Answered prosopagnosia. Correct Answer sensation. ... Which research method would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between the religious beliefs of Americans and their attitudes toward abortion? Correct Answer the survey You Answered naturalistic observation the case study experimentati the survey Factors other than those of interest that can potentially influence the results of a study are called You Answered independent variables. dependent variables. Correct Answer confounding variables. randomly assigned variables. confounding variables The illusion that uncontrollable events are correlated with our actions is facilitated by a phenomenon known as Correct! regression toward the mean. the correlation coefficient. random assignment. replication. regression toward the mean To determine whether the strength of people's self-esteem is related to their income levels, researchers would most likely make use of case studies. Correct! correlational research. experimentation. naturalistic observation. correlational research A descriptive technique of monitoring and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to change or control the situation is called You Answered random sampling. Correct Answer naturalistic observation. replication. the double-blind naturalistic observation Correlation is a measure of the extent to which two variables Correct Answer are related. You Answered are random samples. influence each other. are dependent variables. are related Our tendency to believe we know more than we do best illustrates You Answered naturalistic observation. the placebo effect. Correct Answer overconfidence. random assignment. overconfidence Which of the following correlations between self-esteem and body weight would enable you to most accurately predict body weight from knowledge of level of self-esteem? Correct Answer +0.60 +0.01 You Answered -0.10 -0.06 +0.60 A representative sample is one that accurately reflects a larger You Answered control group. scatterplot. dependent variable. Correct Answer population. population A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment is called a wording effect. You Answered correlation coefficient. placebo effect. Correct Answer confounding variable. confounding variable Which of the following is NOT included in the ethics code of the APA for utilizing human participants in research? Researchers must obtain potential participants' informed consent to participate. Researchers must keep personal information of participants Researchers must report the results of individuals participants To accurately generalize study results, researchers need You Answered a good population base. a highly reliable survey. naturalistic observation. Correct Answer a representative sample. a representative sample Suppose that people who watch a lot of violence on TV are also particularly likely to behave aggressively. This relationship would NOT necessarily indicate that watching violence influences aggressive behavior because we most readily notice associations t association does not prove causation In an experimental study, men with erectile disorder received either Viagra or a placebo. In this study, the drug dosage (none versus peak dose) was the confounding variable. dependent variable. operational definition. Correct! independent variable. independent variable British researchers randomly assigned 424 hospitalized premature infants either to formula feeding or to breast-milk feeding. They found that on intelligence tests taken at the age of 8, those who were breast fed significantly scored higher than those who experiment Dr. Jones is studying the effect of room lighting on college students' test performance and has defined room lighting as either dimly lit or brightly lit. This definition is an example of a(n) theory. hypothesis. Correct! operational definition. hunch. Qu ... The self-correcting process for asking questions and observing nature's answers is known as You Answered a theory. a prediction. Correct Answer the scientific method. an operational definition. the scientific method Mike Crampton's stockbroker has informed him that he has suffered substantial investment losses. When Mike tells his wife, she angrily responds, "I could have told you that your investment plan would fail!" Her comment best illustrates Correct Answer hind hindsight bias Regression toward the mean refers to the tendency for changes in one factor to predict changes in another factor. Correct Answer unusual events to be followed by more ordinary events. pessimistic thinking to trigger episodes of depression. You Answered a unusual events to be followed by more ordinary events To decide whether observed differences between samples reflect actual differences between populations, you should determine the ________ of the observed differences. You Answered mean median standard deviation Correct Answer statistical significance statistical significance A statistically significant difference between two sample groups is NOT likely to be a reflection of differences between the populations they represent. Correct! due to chance variation within and between the sample groups. observed more than 5 percent of due to chance variation within and between the sample groups. Seven members of a boys' club reported the following individual earnings from their sale of cookies:$2, $9,$8, $10,$4, $9, and$7. In this distribution of individual earnings
You Answered the median is greater than the mean and greater than the mode.
t

the median is greater than the mean and less than the mode.

In a single day, 45 babies were born in hospital X, 65 babies in hospital Y, and 25 babies in hospital Z. At which hospital is there the greatest probability that more than 60 percent of the babies are of the same sex?
hospital Y
C

hospital Z

During the last Central High School basketball game, the starting five players scored 11, 7, 21, 14, and 7 points, respectively. For this distribution of scores, the range is
7.
11.
Correct! 14.
21.

14

The average price for different brands of toothpaste could be visually displayed in a(n)

bar graph

Approximately 95 percent of the cases represented by the normal curve fall within ________ standard deviation(s) from the mean.

2

Differences between two sample averages are most likely to be statistically significant if
Correct Answer the difference between the samples is large.
the standard deviations of the samples are large.
You Answered both samples are drawn from the same popu

the difference between the samples is large