Chapter 1: I/O Psych Now and Then


Using a scientific approach to study people at work

What is I/O psych?

Productivity & job wellbeing (Emotional exhaustion, job analysis, positive motivational state)

What are the goals of I/O Psych?

We should base work related decioions on scientific evidence and not just fads or intuition, doing so can save companies mony and make employees happier

What is the botton line?

scientist-practitioner perspective

I/O psychologists follow the ____


___ think critically about workplace issues


Apply theory/ research to help orgs

Industrial Psychology

Topics associated with management of HR

Job analysis
Performance appraisal

What topics are associated with Industrial psychology?

Organizational Psychology

Topics associated with understanding/predicting behavior within organizational setting

Work attitudes
Organizational development

What topics are associated with organizational psychology?


___ is the professional association with which I/O Psychologists affiliate

M.A. (generally ab 2 years) or Ph.D. (Generally 5)

I/O psychologists need to accquire?


When was the birth of I/O?

Scott & Munsterberg

Founding father(s) before WW1


Founding father9s0 durning WW1


Founding father(s) after WW1

Walter Dill Scott

Invited to give a talk in Chicago about the psychological aspects of advertising, 1901 (beginning of I/O)

Theory of Advertising

Walter Dill Scott published _____ in 1903

Hugo Musterberg

____ published psychology and industrial Efficiency textbook (1913)

Walter D Scott

_____ created performance rating forms


Who developed mental ability tests used to select and classify army personal (leadership potential too)

Army Alpha and Beta

Yerkes' mental ability tests were ______ _______ & _____

First time cognitive ability tests were used
Group administered tests
Verbal and numerical ability, ability to follow directions, and knowledge of information

What were alpha and beta tests?

Tested the amount of time you were in the US
Bias against non US citizens

What was the outcome of the alpha beta tests?


Alpha and beta tests measured ____

The Scott Company

I/O psychologists started consulting firms (eg ______)

Lily Gilbreth (First lady of management)

Who was the first women to get her PhD in I/O?

Lily Gilbreth

who invented the pedal trashcan and fridge door shelves

Principle 1: Workers need incentives to work harder (Rational decision to perform well)
Principle 2: Need better processes, not better people
Principle 3: Need the scientist-practitioner approach

What are the three scientific management principles (1911)?

Elton Mayo

___ was applying ideas of scientific management at western electric (12 year study)n aka hawthorne studies

what organizational factors (eg lighting, breaks, incentives) enhance or reduce efficiency

what was the purpose of the hawthorne studies?

any change in light seemed to increase productivity

Study 1: illuminations study
what impact did light have on productivity?

received breaks --- increased productivity
stopped working earlier (smae amount of tie but no breaks) --- increased productivity
went back to original schedule (no breaks) --- almost same productivity
Whats going on??
remember no managers in the room now.

Study 2: Relay assembly
no managers in the room
women chose each other - no random selection
what break schedule resulted in the greatest level of productivity?

Men viewed a days work as completing 2 units --- Once they hit 2 units, stopped working OR they paced themselves so they'd hit 2 units by end of day
Employees did not trust they'd get wage
Thought: they are going to take away the wage and then e

Study 3: male sample
provide monetary incentives for work goals (will money increase productivity?)

Employee performance is influenced by social factors and norms

What is the takeaways from the hawthorne studies?

Affect and Emotion
Internet applications to I/O
Work-Family Issues
Coaching and Development
Impact of automation on jobs

What are some current hot topics in I/O?

Global: 800 mill jobs could be automated by 2030
US: 73 mill jobs at risk
Moderately skilled job might not be needed
Customer service - replacing baristas
Food industry - cooks
Security guards
Driving - truckers, Uber/Lyft
White collar jobs at risk too

Robots replacing humans (automation of jobs)

People are unknowingly teaching AI how to do their jobs
Entry level middle class jobs are important for Americans
"What are blue collar of America supposed to do?"
Trucking most common job in 29 US states
Impact on people/families? WHAT DO WE DO?
Are peop

Ethical issues of robots taking your job

Employees and employers will be faced with a potentially large amount of job disruption due to these changes
Organizations will need to address issues like job insecurity, morale, efficiency, and training
Training workforce to do new jobs?

I/O's role?