Music 1010 Exam 2


The material (usually a recognizable melody) upon which the entire work is based.


A leading phrase or figure that is reproduced and varied through the course of a composition or movement.

Thematic Development

Musical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline, harmony, or rhythm.

Absolute Music

Music that is independent of words, drama, visual images, or any kind of representational aspects.


A musical phrase repeated over and over during a composition; a repeated pattern.

Sonata-Allegro Form

A dramatic musical form of the Classical and Romantic periods involving an exposition, development, recapitulation, with optional introduction and coda.

Classical Music Rhythm

In Classical music, there is a flexibility of rhythm. A classical composition has a wealth of rhythmic patterns. The classical style also includes unexpected pauses, syncopations, and frequent changes from long notes to shorter ones. And the change from o

Classical Music Dynamics

The Classical composers' interest in expressing shades of emotion led to the widespread use of gradual dynamic change - crescendo (gradually getting louder) and diminuendo ( gradually getting softer). They did not restrict themselves to the terracd dynami

Classical Music Melody

Classical melodie are among the most tuneful and easy to remember. The themes of even highly sophisticated compositions may have a folk or popular flavour. Occasionally, composer simply borrowed popular tunes, but more often, they wrote original themes wi

Classical Music Texture

Classical music is basically homophonic. However, texture is treated as flexibly as rhythm. Pieces shift smoothly or suddenly from one texture to another. A work may begin homophonically with a melody and simple accompaniment but then change to a more com

Symphony in the Classical Period

Symphony", meaning "sounding together" was used during the Baroque period of music. It set the standard for future symphonies, which would fall into a pattern of sets called "movements".
Movement 1 - Fast, usually an allegro and in what became known as s

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

(1756-1791) playing keyboard instruments and composing at the age of 6, 8yrs old first symphonies are performed, 12 composing operas. In 1770 he was a servent composer and violenist, in 1781 he moves to vienna no longer a servent and composes and teaches.

Franz Joseph Haydn

(1732-1809) Classical composer who spent most of his life as musical director for wealthy Esterhazy brothers; visits to England introduced him to world of public concerts rather than princely patrons;wrote The Creation and The Seasons.

Ludwig Van Beethoven

(1770-1827) was the first master of romantic music. He was one of the greatest composers in German history. He composed 9 symphonies, 5 piano concerts, a violin concerto, 32 piano sonatas, 2 Masses, and an opera. At the peak of his fame, in constant deman

Theme and Variation Form

A theme or tune followed by any number of restatements or "variation". The skeletal design of the theme is maintained, but the melody, key, rhythm, harmony, range, and texture may change. Greatly defined by J.S. Bach.


A slow, stately pattern dance in 3/4 time for groups of couples, originating in 17th-century France; a movement in 3/4 time that is usually the third, but sometimes the second, of a four-movement symphony or string quartet.

Rondo Form

Classical form with at least three statements of the refrain (A) and at least two contrasting sections (at least B and C); placement of the refrain creates symmetrical patterns such as ABACA, ABACABA, or even ABACADA.

Double Exposition Form

Used in concertos where the orchestra typically plays the first exposition. The first exposition generally stays in the tonic key. The second exposition modulates to the secondary key, and features the soloist.

String Quartet

An instrumental group consisting of two violins, viola, and cello; or a piece composed for this group; or the four players themselves.

Chamber Music

Instrumental music played by a small ensemble, with one player to a part, the most important form being the string quartet.


Compositional form in three parts (A B A),sometimes used as the third movement in classical and romantic symphonies, stirring quartets, and other works. A scherzo is usually in triple meter, with a faster tempo than a minuet.


An embellishment or flourish, prepared or improvised, for a solo voice or instrument.


A German art song of the 19th century for voice and piano.

Franz Schubert

A nineteenth-century Austrian composer. Like Ludwig van Beethoven, he composed during the transition from classic to romantic period in music. He is known especially for his song cycles (leider), usually written for solo voice and piano accompaniment. His


Song structure that is composed from beginning to end, without repetitions of large sections.


A musical structure in which the same music is used for each stanza of a ballad, song, or hymn.

Song Cycle

Set of songs by one composer, often with texts by the same poet. The songs may be related by subject, melodic material, or both.

Robert Schumann

Born in Germany; Composer and music scholar/critic; Married Clara Wiecki, a virtuoso pianist and composer; Wrote symphonies, chamber music, short piano works, lieder- traditional style; championed the works of Brahms (more to come); In later life, suffere

Clara Weick Schmann

Wrote "The moon has risen softly". Composed. Brother was teacher. 15 prodegy. In love with Johannes Brahms. Not remarry. stop compose. leading pianist in europe.

Frederic Chopin

A nineteenth-century Polish romantic composer who spent most of his career in France. He is known for his expressive piano pieces; he composed almost exclusively for that instrument.

Franz Liszt

A Hungarian composer and pianist of the Romantic period known for his fiery style of composition and performance.

Hector Berlioz

1803-1869, romantic composer most like Beethoven in his time, idee fixe, Symphonie Fantastique 1830, Harold in Italy 1834.

Program Symphonies

Entire symphonies with programs spelled out movement by movement. Berlioz set the tone for the grandiose compositions that were to become as characteristic of Romanticism as its musical miniatures.


19th-century western European artistic and literary movement; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.


A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be.

Symphonic Poem

One-movement orchestral form that develops a poetic idea, suggests a scene, or creates a mood, generally associated with the Romantic era. Also tone poem.

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Russian Romantic playwright who had highly emotional and melodic operas, ballet music, symphonies, and other orchestral works. His compositions were built around stories. Developed nationalistic music that emphasized Russian folk themes. Strong feelings w

Overture Fantasy

Example romeo and juliet by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. also called Symphonic Fantasia. Lengthy in one movement with free forms from sonata from to rondo.

Nationalism in Music

Inclusion of folk songs, dances, leglends, and other national material in a compsotion to associate it with the composer's homeland; character of romantic music.


Nineteenth-century trend in which composers wrote music that evoked feelings and settings of distant lands or foreign cultures.

Johannes Brahms

Born Hamburg moved to Vienna. Went back to classical genres and style. Most are string quartets and other chamber music, symphonies, concertos. Classical sonata form and rondo.No new harmonies or tone color. Moved in with Schumanns. Friend also Joseph Joa

Gustav Mahler

An Austrian composer and conductor of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He wrote long, intensely emotional works for large orchestras, including nine symphonies and part of a tenth.